Know the Etymology: 221
Place Name of the Day: Sunday, 04 December 2016


Amuṇu-kuṁbura, Pal-kuṁbura, Goḍa-kuṁbura, Kumpuṟup-piṭṭi

அமுணு-கும்பு₃ர, பல்-கும்பு₃ர, கொ₃ட₃-கும்பு₃ர, கும்புறுப்-பிட்டி
Amuṇu-kuṁbura, Pal-kuṁbura, Goḍa-kuṁbura, Kumpuṟup-piṭṭi

Amuṇu+kuṁbura, Pal+kuṁbura, Goḍa+kuṁbura, Kuṁpuṟu+piṭṭi

The paddy field of the barrage-dam

The ruined paddy field

The paddy field on the hill or the highest land in the paddy field tract

The mound or high ground in the paddy field tract


Kuṁbura (singular); Kuṁburu: (plural) paddy field (Sinhala, Clough); wetland paddy field "Goyam vẹvena diya sahita keta" (Sinhala, Sorata); Kubari, Kabara, Umbura, Ubara, Uvara: = Kuṁbura (Sinhala, Sorata, appendix); Kumpuṟu: paddy field (as noticed in some Eezham Tamil place names from Jaffna to Batticaloa); 1. Kummari, Kumari: a piece of ground in a jungle, on which the trees are cut down and burned, where after it is cultivated for one or two years only (Kannada, DED 1740); Kummēri: forest cultivation (Kannada, DED 1740); Kumēru: a wasteland cleared for cultivation (Tulu, DED 1740); Kumeru: a wasteland, usually a hilly tract, cleared for cultivation (Tulu, Tulu-English Dictionary, M. Bhat); Kumari: cultivation in hills (Tamil, DED 1740); Kummari, Kummaṟi: slash and burn paddy cultivation in hill-forest (Tamil, inscriptions from Karnataka region, 1051 CE, Epigraphia Carnatica, ix, Dv, 76; 1110 CE, EC, ix, Nl, 3); etymology probably related to burning a forest; Kumpu: (verb) to become charred (Tamil, DED 1752); Kumpi: fire (Tamil, MTL supplement cites Jaffna dictionary); hot ashes (Tamil, DED 1752); Kumpiṭu-caṭṭi: a bowl or dish in which fire in embers is kept (Tamil, DED 1751); Kumai: (verb) to be hot (Tamil, DED 1752); be destroyed (Tamil, DED 1746); Kumuṟu: (verb) to burst as of volcano (Tamil); Kome: (verb) to begin to burn (Kannada, DED 1752); Gumulu: fire burning in embers (Tulu, DED 1752); Kumulu: (verb) to smoulder, to burn slowly underneath without flame (Telugu, DED 1752); Kummu: smouldering ashes (Telugu, DED 1752); Gubrī: fine ashes of burnt-out fire (Gondi, DED 1752); 2. Alternatively the etymology probably related to forest; Kumpal-kāṭu: dense forest (Tamil, MTL); Kumpal: heap, clump, cluster (Tamil, DED 1741); from the root Kumi: (verb) to crowd, gather, be heaped up (Tamil, DED 1741); Kumbra, Gumbra: clump or trees (Kuwi, DED 1741); Gumpu: forest, thick growth (Kannada, DED 1733); Gomu: thicket, forest (Sinhala, Sorata); Kampalai: agricultural tract (Tamil, DED 1237); Kamam: paddy field (Eezham Tamil); Kamata: threshing floor in a paddy field (Sinhala); Kaman: forest (Gondi, Pengo, DED 1228); Kamaṇ: forest (Manda, DED 1228); Kamṇa: forest, park, grove (Kuwi, DED 1228); Kambare: uncultivated ground (Maltese, DED 1228)
Pal 1. (adjective) old, rotten (Sinhala, Clough); Pāḷu: uncultivated, unoccupied, devastated, destroyed, desolate (Sinhala, Clough); Pāḻ: (verb) to go to ruin, be laid waste, become useless, be accursed; (noun) desolation, ruin, damage, emptiness, barrenness (Tamil, DED 4110); Pal 2: mud, mire (Sinhala, Clough); "Maḍa, Mada-bora" (Sinhala, Sorata); Pal 3: protection (Sinhala, Clough), "Rakina, Pālanaya karaṇa" (Sinhala, Sorata);


Kuṁbura (Kuṁburu in plural and Kuṁburē in combinations) meaning paddy field is a commonly found Sinhala place name component. It is also seldom found in the form Kumpuṟu in Eezham Tamil place names both in Jaffna and Batticaloa.

Kubari, Kabara, Umbura, Ubara and Uvara in Sinhala are variations of Kuṁbura (see entries and addenda in Sorata's Sinhala dictionary). The variations Kabara and Uvara are found in some Sinhala place names also (see related place names).

Cognates of Kuṁbura/ Kumpuṟu could be seen in a particular group of Dravidian, i.e., Tulu and Kannada, and in old Tamil inscriptions coming from the southern Karnataka region.

Kummēri/ Kummari in Kannada; Kumēru/ Kumeru in Tulu and Kumari in an obscure usage in Tamil (MTL), basically mean a slash and burn paddy cultivation field especially in hill forests. The words are listed as Dravidian (DED 1740).

The etymological origins of the terms seem to be coming from the act of burning and clearing a forest for cultivation, which corresponds to the verbs, Kumpu in Tamil, meaning to be charred; Kome in Kannada meaning to begin to burn as fire; Kumulu in Telugu to burn slowly (DED 1752) and Kumai in Tamil meaning to be hot or be destroyed (DED 1752, 1746). Note the noun form Kumpi in Tamil and related cognates in Dravidian meaning fire, embers, hot ashes etc. See box above for other etymological possibilities.

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Kummari as cultivation:

"மேல் வாரமொந்றும் கீழ்வார மூந்றும் கும்மரி ஒன்றுக்கு வாசியேற்றி நிலமும்" (Tamil inscription, 1051 CE, Epigraphia Carnatica, ix, Dv, 76)

"Meal vaaramo:n'rum keezhvaara moo:n'rum kummari on'rukku vaasiyeatti nilamum" (Tamil inscription, 1051 CE, Epigraphia Carnatica, ix, Dv, 76)

"Mēl vāramonṟum kīḻvāra mūnṟum kummari yoṉṟukku vāciyēṟṟi nilamum" (Tamil inscription, 1051 CE, Epigraphia Carnatica, ix, Dv, 76)


Kummaṟik-kaṭamai as tax on Kummaṟi cultivation:

“இவ்வூர் விளையிற் சுற்றும் நஞ்சை புஞ்சை கோடை பய்யனம் கார் வரகு கும்மறிக் கடமை” (Tamil inscription, 1110 CE, Epigraphia Carnatica, ix, Nl. 3)

"Ivvoor vi'laiyit chuttum nagnchai pugnchai koadai payyanam kaar varaku Kumma'rik kadamai" (Tamil inscription, 1110 CE, Epigraphia Carnatica, ix, Nl. 3)

"Ivvūr viḷaiyiṟ cuṟṟum nañcai puñcai kōṭai payyaṉam kār varaku kummaṛik kaṭamai" (Tamil inscription, 1110 CE, Epigraphia Carnatica, ix, Nl. 3)

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The component Pal has different meanings in Sinhala. Considering popular usage, the adjective form meaning old or rotten is taken as the appropriate one. In this meaning, the word corresponds to Pāḷu in Sinhala meaning uncultivated, devastated, destroyed, unoccupied etc., and in turn corresponds to Pāḻ in Tamil/ Dravidian meaning the same (DED 4110).

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Goḍa-kuṁbura literally means a paddy field on a hill or high bank. But as a phrase it may also mean the highest land in a tract of paddy fields.

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See other columns on the etymology of Amuṇa, Goḍa and Piṭṭi.

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Amuṇu-kuṁbura is a place in Mahara division of Gampaha district

Pal-kuṁbura is found as a place name in Udunuwara division of Kandy district and in Attanagalla division of Gampaha district. There are three other places having the same name, differentiated as Hēnē-gama Pal-kuṁbura and Adun-gama Pal-kuṁbura in Thumpane division of Kandy district, and Gōni-goḍa Pal-kuṁbura in Harispatuwa division of Kandy district.

Goḍa-kuṁbura is in Balangoda division of Ratnapura district and in Udadumbara division of Kandy district.

Kumpuṟup-piṭṭi is a place in Kuchchaveli division of Trincomalee district. There is another Kumpuṟup-piṭṭi, which is a mound amidst paddy field, in Velanai in Kayts division of Jaffna district (personal info).

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Some related place names:

Kuṁbura:

Mā-kuṁbura: Maharagama, Colombo; Balapitiya, Galle

Hakuru-kuṁbura: Mirigama, Gampaha. Hakuru: Akuru: gravel

Poḍi-vī-kuṁbura: Ja-Ela, Gampaha

Pal-kuṁbura: Attanagalla, Gampaha; Thumpane, Kandy; Harispattuwa, Kandy; Udunuwara, Kandy. Pal: mud, mire

Vihāra-kuṁbura: Dompe, Gampaha

Amuṇu-kuṁbura: Mahara, Gampaha

Mī-gaha-kuṁbura: Bulathsinhala, Kalutara

Kuṁburē-gama: Thumpane, Kandy

Hēnē-gama Pal-kuṁbura: Thumpane, Kandy

Adun-gama Pal-kuṁbura: Thumpane, Kandy

Aň-kumbura: Pujapitiya, Kandy. Aň: Haň: Buddhist monastery

Ug-gaha-kuṁbura: Pujapitiya, Kandy

Bō-gaha-kuṁbura: Pathadumbara, Kandy; Kandaketiya, Badulla; Welimada, Badulla

Maha-kuṁbura: Pathadumbara, Kandy. Maha: the main season of paddy cultivation. See Yal-kuṁbura for comparison

Uḍa-kuṁbura: Udadumbara, Kandy

Kiri-gan-kuṁbura: Udadumbara, Kandy

Goḍa-kuṁbura: Udadumbara, Kandy; Uva Paranagama, Badulla; Balangoda, Ratnapura

Kandē-kuṁbura: Medadumbara, Kandy

Bō-gas-kuṁbura: Kundasale, Kandy

Tẹnna-kuṁbura: Kandy Four Gravets, Kandy

Ul-pata-kuṁbura: Kandy Four Gravets, Kandy

Gōni-goḍa Pal-kuṁbura: Harispattuwa, Kandy Nāraň-gas-kuṁbura: Harispattuwa, Kandy

Kuṁburē-gedara: Harispattuwa, Kandy

Duň-kuṁbura: Hatharaliyadda, Kandy

Vatura-kuṁbura: Yatinuwara, Kandy; Pitabeddara, Matara

Kẹṭa-kuṁbura: Yatinuwara, Kandy; Udunuwara, Kandy

Kiri-bat-kuṁbura: Yatinuwara, Kandy

Mā-vī-kuṁbura: Udunuwara, Kandy

Pol-kuṁbura: Udapalatha, Kandy

Nayā-kuṁbura: Dambulla, Matale

Dik-kuṁbura: Yatawatta, Matale; Imaduwa, Galle; Kandaketiya, Badulla

Asgiri Dora-kuṁbura: Yatawatta, Matale

Gal-vaḍu-kuṁbura: Matale, Matale

Dora-kuṁbura: Matale, Matale; Padiyathalawa, Ampara

Iḷuk-kuṁbura: Laggala-Pallegama, Matale; Weligepola, Ratnapura

Maḍa-kuṁbura: Rattota, Matale; Kothmale, Nuwara Eliya; Karandeniya, Galle

Pallē-kuṁbura: Ukuwela, Matale

Mẹda-kuṁbura: Kothmale, Nuwara Eliya

Udavatta-kuṁbura: Hanguranketha, Nuwara Eliya

Doḍam-kuṁbura: Hanguranketha, Nuwara Eliya

Diṁbul-kuṃbura: Hanguranketha, Nuwara Eliya

Ẹlla-kuṁbura: Walapane, Nuwara Eliya

Puraň-kuṁbura: Walapane Nuwara Eliya

Paṇḍitayā-kuṁbura: Walapane, Nuwara Eliya

Pilē-kuṁbura: Bentota, Galle

Kuṁburē-goḍa: Thawalama, Galle

Hiriya-mal-kuṁbura: Yakkalamulla, Galle

Tala-pe-kuṁbura: Pitabeddara, Matara

Beli-atta-kuṁbura: Kotapola, Matara

Kuruńdu-kuṁbura: Panduwasnuwara West, Kurunegala

Vẹli-kuṁbura: Mawathagama, Kurunegala; Narammala, Kurunegala

Dehi-kuṁbura: Weerambugedera, Kurunegala

Para-kuṁbura: Weerambugedera, Kurunegala

Maḍa-kuṁburu-mulla: Kuliyapitiya West, Kurunegala

Pan-vala-kuṁbura: Pannala, Kurunegala

Vala-kuṁbura: Alawwa, Kurunegala

Divul-kuṁbura: Polgahawela, Kurunegala

Alavā-kuṁbura: Dimbulagala, Polonnaruwa

Ẹkiriyan-kuṁbura: Rideemaliyadda, Badulla. Ẹkiri: = Akiri: gravel

Gama-kuṁbura: Rideemaliyadda, Badulla

Talā-kuṁbura: Kandaketiya, Badulla

Aravā-kuṁbura: Lunugala, Badulla

Hapu-vala-kuṁbura: Hali-Ela, Badulla

Riṭi-kuṁbura: Uva Paranagama, Badulla

Piṭiya-kuṁbura: Uva Paranagama, Badulla

Koradē-kuṁbura: Uva Paranagama, Badulla. Note another place name Korada-minna, in Divulapitiya, Gampaha

Aṁba-gaha-kuṁbura: Welimada, Badulla

Hevana-kuṁbura: Welimada, Badulla

Mā-viti-kuṁbura: Welimada, Badulla. Mā-viti: Mā-vī

Pahaḷa-yal-kuṁbura: Welimada, Badulla

Hela-yal-kuṁbura: Welimada, Badulla

Vaňgiya-kuṁbura: Welimada, Badulla

Bẹddē-kuṁbura: Bandarawela, Badulla

Piṭa-kuṁbura: Bibile, Moneragala

Lińda-kuṁbura: Bibile, Moneragala

Yal-kuṁbura: Bibile. Moneragala

Kohu-kuṁbura: Medagama, Moneragala. Kohu: a sort of paddy (Sinhala, Clough)

Iluk-kuṁbura: Medagama, Moneragala

Vẹ-kuṁbura: Badalkumbura, Moneragala. Vẹ: = Vẹva (Sinhala, Sorata)

Kuṁburu-tẹni-vela: Imbulpe, Ratnapura

Velē-kuṁbura: Balangoda, Ratnapura

Vijanat-kuṁbura: Balangoda, Ratnapura

Gōna-kuṁbura: Pelmadulla, Ratnapura

Kuṁburu-gamuva: Kolonna, Ratnapura

Baḍal-kuṁbura: Badalkumbura, Moneragala. Baḍal 1: from Baḍa+la: adjacent; Baḍal 2: Baḍa+la: tax, revenue; see other columns on Baḍa; Baḍal 3: also Baḍāl, Bańḍāl, Baḍahal: goldsmith (Sinhala, Sorata); Baḍal-vẹḍa: goldsmith's trade (Sinhala, Sorata); Baḍālā (singular); Baḍallu (plural): gold or silver smith, a man of that caste (Sinhala, Clough); 1. Bhāṇḍa: pot, dish, vessel, ornament, wares (Sanskrit, CDIAL 9440); Bhāṇḍa-śāla: storehouse (Sanskrit, CDIAL 9441); Paṇṭa-cālai: storehouse, treasury (Tamil, MTL); store of ornamental jewellery (Tamil, Tivākaram, 5: 156); Paṇṭak-kalam: gold jewellery (Tamil, Maṇimēkalai, 26: 23); the etymology may be related to pot, storage vessel or crucible and in turn to stomach; Paṇṭi, Paṇṭam, Vaṇṭi: belly, stomach (Tamil, DED 3898); Baḍa: stomach (Sinhala); Also note another place name, Baḍal-gama in Divulapitiya, Gampaha;

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Kumpuṟu: (Tamil)

Kumpuṟu-mūlai: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

Kumpuṟup-piṭṭi: Velanai, Kayts Island, Jaffna; Kuchchaveli, Trincomalee

Kumpuṟu-veḷi: Eravoorpattu, Batticaloa

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Kabara:

Kabara-gala: Imaduwa, Galle

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Uvara:

Uvara-gala: Kotapola, Matara

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Revised: Sunday, 04 December 2016, 23:24

First published: Thursday, 23 August 2012, 18:20

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