Feature Article
2ND LEAD (Update)

Chennai Connect and Eezham Tamils reminding Tamil Nadu to assert Tamil geopolitics

[TamilNet, Wednesday, 16 October 2019, 23:19 GMT]
After wrapping up his informal Summit with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Tamil Nadu, Chinese President Xi Jinping this week paid a two-day State visit to Nepal, where he announced a strategic partnership with the landlocked country situated between India and China. While the Nepalese President and Prime Minister extended their commitment to China’s Belt & Road Initiative, Xi Jinping announced the plan for the transformation of the landlocked country into a “land-linked” country in South Asia. He was effectively pitching for a ‘Trans-Himalayan Corridor’. China launching yet another land-based economic corridor in South Asia, in addition to that of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, is the latest manoeuvre of geopolitics.

The geopolitics along the northern borders of India is also affecting the stateless nations of Kashmir and Tibet that aspire for self-determination.

Trans-Himalayan Multi-dimensional Connectivity Network
Trans-Himalayan Multi-dimensional Connectivity Network [Map courtesy: kathmandupost.com, 2018]

While China is delivering the message of supremacy through land-linking geopolitics along the Indian borders in the North, India has doubled its efforts with its Major Strategic Partner, the USA, in establishing supremacy on maritime geopolitics in the South, in the Indian Ocean.

Thus, the selection of Mamallapuram for the informal Summit. Narendra Modi was meeting Xi Jinping in his geopolitical ‘stronghold’ of Tamil Nadu, although his party is very weak in the electoral politics in the state. This is also why he chose to embrace Kaṉiyan Pūngunṟanār at the 74th UN General Assembly speech and the projection of Tamil as one of the worlds ancient language in his recent addresses in the USA and Tamil Nadu. In his UN Assembly speech in September, Modi went to the extent of referring Tamil as “the most ancient language of the world”.

The proposal of establishing sister-state relations between India's Tamil Nadu and China's Fujian Province proposed in the informal Summit should be grasped in this context.

Washington DC and New Delhi are also acting in sync and determination as never before in the Indo-Pacific oriented foreign and defence policy towards the SL State.

Both the USA and India are also set to tighten their grip on the other BIMSTEC member states that have coastlines facing the Indian Ocean.

Unlike the past, the genocidal state of unitary Sri Lanka is increasingly plunged into the dilemma of making a ‘clear choice’ on the issue of defence corporation.

Tamils should have a principled policy of telling their demand in clear terms to the powers that keep recognising the ‘territorial integrity’ of the genocidal state.

Eezham Tamils must be unrelenting and focused on demanding the territorial integrity of their traditional homeland, which is the occupied Tamil Eelam.

China, USA or India should abstain from guaranteeing the territorial integrity of the unitary state of genocidal Sri Lanka until the unitary state system is scrapped, and a political solution to the Tamil national question is found, must be the message coming from the Tamils.

The Tamil national movements and parties in Tamil Nadu need to realise the significance of this demand. It is also in their interest of safeguarding the stateless Tamil civilisation in the new world order.

As a nation subjected to genocidal annihilation by the state-centric geopolitics and ‘development’ outlook of the powers – be it the USA, China or India – it is time for the stateless nation of Eezham Tamils to send a strong signal to all the global and regional powers.

The Tamils should also prioritise forging strategic solidarity with other self-determination movements in South Asia.

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Chinese Foreign Minister has issued a statement following Xi Jinping's Chennai and Kathmandu visits. The statement clearly reveals that the Kashmir issue remained as a topic in the Summit, unlike the impression given to the Indian press by the Indian Foreign Secretary Vijay Gohkale. “This (Kashmir) issue was not raised and not discussed. Our position is anyways very clear that this is an internal matter of India,” was what Gohkale told the Indian press following the summit. However, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi told the following to the press in China:

“Prior to his trip to South Asia, President Xi Jinping listened to the views and propositions of the Pakistani side in his meeting with Prime Minister Imran Khan of Pakistan. In Chennai, President Xi Jinping had in-depth communication on the regional situation with Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and encouraged all parties concerned to solve the current issues through dialogue. President Xi Jinping stressed, the Chinese side sincerely expects sound China-India relations, China-Pakistan relations and India-Pakistan relations, and expects to see all sides work together to promote regional peace and stability, and achieve common development and prosperity.”

A joint statement issued by Nepali and Chinese leaders went on to state that the Nepali side has reiterated its “firm commitment to One China policy, acknowledging that Taiwan is an inalienable part of the Chinese territory and Tibet affairs are China’s internal affairs, and the determination on not allowing any anti-China activities on its soil.”

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The full text of the joint statement by Nepal and the People’s Republic of China follows:

At the invitation of Rt. Hon. Bidya Devi Bhandari, President of Nepal, H.E. Mr. Xi Jinping, President of the People’s Republic of China, paid a state visit to Nepal from 12 to 13 October 2019.

During the visit, President Xi met with President Bhandari, held talks with Prime Minister K P Sharma Oli and attended the welcoming banquet by President Bhandari. In a warm and cordial atmosphere, leaders of the two countries reached broad understanding through in-depth exchange of views on bilateral relationship and regional and international issues of common concern.

  1. The two sides expressed satisfaction over the fact that since the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries in 1955, Nepal-China relationship has withstood changes of the international situation and has been growing in a consistent, steady and healthy manner, which sets a model of peaceful coexistence between the two countries of different size. Both sides recognized that the bilateral relationship between the two countries is characterized by equality, harmonious coexistence, ever-lasting friendship and comprehensive cooperation.

    Nepal and China take the Belt and Road Initiative as an important opportunity to deepen mutually-beneficial cooperation in all fields in a comprehensive manner, jointly pursue common prosperity and dedicate themselves to maintaining peace, stability and development in the region. The bilateral relationship between Nepal and China has entered a new phase. Both sides decided to, on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, Charter of the United Nations and principles of good neighbourliness, elevate Nepal-China Comprehensive Partnership of Cooperation Featuring Ever-lasting Friendship to Strategic Partnership of Cooperation Featuring Ever-lasting Friendship for Development and Prosperity.

  2. The two sides agreed to respect each other’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, and respect and accommodate each other’s concerns and core interests. The two sides will adhere to good neighboring policy and deepen overall cooperation in a win-win manner, so as to achieve mutual benefit and pursue stability and development together.

    The Nepali side reiterated its firm commitment to One China policy, acknowledging that Taiwan is an inalienable part of the Chinese territory and Tibet affairs are China’s internal affairs, and the determination on not allowing any anti-China activities on its soil. The Chinese side reiterated its firm support to Nepal in upholding the country’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, and its firm support and respect to Nepal’s social system and development path independently chosen in the light of Nepal’s national conditions.

  3. The Chinese side congratulated Nepal on the historic and epoch-making political transformation and its rapid economic and social development. It believed that the Nepali people would unite as one and keep marching towards the vision of ‘Samriddha Nepal, Suhki Nepali” (‘Prosperous Nepal, Happy Nepali’), so as to achieve political stability, social harmony and rapid economic development. The Chinese side expressed willingness to continue interacting with the Nepali side on the experience of governance.

    The Nepali side congratulated on the 70th Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Republic of China and expressed its admiration to China’s miraculous achievement in development over the past 70 years and sincerely wished that under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, the Chinese people would keep striving to realize the two centenary goals and build China a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful.

  4. Both sides underlined that high-level contacts are of special importance to the development of bilateral relations. The two sides agreed to maintain the momentum of high-level visits, deepen political mutual trust and expand exchanges and cooperation between government ministries, departments, legislatures and political parties at all levels.

  5. The two sides agreed to intensify implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative to enhance connectivity, encompassing such vital components as ports, roads, railways, aviation and communications within the overarching framework of trans-Himalayan Multi-Dimensional Connectivity Network with a view to significantly contributing to Nepal’s development agenda that includes graduating from LDC at an early date, becoming middle income country by 2030 and realizing the SDGs by the same date.

    The two sides, while recalling the MoU signed between the two countries on 21 June 2018 on Cooperation in Railway Project, agreed to conduct the feasibility study as outlined in the MoU signed on 13 October 2019, which will lay an important foundation to launching the construction of the Cross-Border Railway. Both sides also reiterated their commitment to extend cooperation on Kathmandu-Pokhara-Lumbini Railway Project.

    The two sides welcomed the reopening and restoration of the freight functions of the Zhangmu/Khasa port, and will optimize the functions of the Jilong/Keyrung port and open the Lizi/Nechung port at the earliest possible time and build necessary infrastructure on the Nepali side of the border.

    Both sides would keep implementing the Protocol concerning the Utilization of Highway in Tibet, China by Nepal for Cargo Transport and the Protocol to the Agreement on Transit Transport. On the basis of maintaining the long-term operational condition of the Araniko Highway, both sides agreed to cooperate on upgrading and reconstructing the highway on a priority basis in a step-by-step manner. The Chinese side conveyed its readiness in initiating the repair of Syaphrubesi-Rasuwagadhi Highway.

    Realizing the importance of enhanced level of connectivity between the two countries, the two sides agreed to proactively cooperate on the feasibility study for the construction of tunnels along the road from Jilong/Keyrung to Kathmandu.

    The Chinese side noted the request made by the Nepali side for the construction of Kimathanka-Leguwaghat section of the Koshi Highway and agreed to consider this project in future cooperation plan and requested the Nepali side to submit a detailed proposal.

    The two sides reiterated their commitment to undertake study on the possibility of cooperation, as reflected in the Joint Statement issued in Beijing on 21 June 2018, for the development of the three North-South corridors in Nepal, namely Koshi Economic Corridor, Gandaki Economic Corridor and Karnali Economic corridor in order to create jobs and improve local livelihood, and stimulate economic growth and development.

    The Chinese side will extend assistance for training Nepali technical human resources in the field of railway, road and tunnel engineering as well as inland waterways and shipping.

    Both sides welcomed the consensus reached by the civil aviation authorities of the two countries on expanding the air rights arrangements, under the framework of which the airlines of both countries are encouraged to launch/operate more direct air services. Both sides will coordinate closely to speed up the construction of the Pokhara International Airport so that it would start operation at an early date.

    The two sides expressed satisfaction over the successful commercial operation of Nepal-China cross-border optical fiber cable and agreed to further strengthen cooperation on information and communications for mutual benefit.

  6. The two sides agreed to strengthen cooperation in various fields of economy including trade, tourism, investment, capacity of production and improving people’s livelihood so as to promote mutual development.

    Under the framework of Nepal-China Joint Commission on Economy and Trade, the two sides will establish a working group on investment cooperation and a working group on trade led by secretary/vice minister-level officials or their designates so as to facilitate bilateral investment and trade. The Chinese side welcomed the Nepali side to participate in the National Exhibition of the Second China International Import Expo to be held in Shanghai in November 2019.

    Both sides will hold comprehensive discussions with a view to strengthening trade relations between the two countries. The Chinese side will take positive measures to expand Nepal’s export to China. The Chinese side will consider providing technical support for the establishment of a multifunctional laboratory in Nepal and extend necessary cooperation to make Tatopani Frontier Inspection Station at Larcha fully functional. Nepal will facilitate the Chinese banks to open their branches and other financial services in Nepal with a view to facilitating trade and investment between the two countries. Both sides will complete their internal procedures at the earliest time for the operationalization of the Protocol to the Transit Transport Agreement and try their best to implement it at an early date.

    Both sides welcomed the signing of the Protocol on Phytosanitary requirements for the Export of Citrus Fruits from Nepal to China and agreed to conclude MoU on Cooperation on Import and Export of Food Safety at the earliest.

    The two sides will continue cooperation on production capacity and investment according to the principles of ‘dominated by enterprises, respecting business principles, adhering to market-orientation and following international common practice’.

    On the basis of the Memorandum of Understanding on Energy Cooperation between the Ministry of Energy, Water Resources and Irrigation of Nepal and the National Energy Administration of the People’s Republic of China signed on 21 June 2018, both sides will bring into full play the Joint Implementation Mechanism (JIM) on Nepal-China Cooperation in energy sector, to carry out exchanges and cooperation in the fields of hydropower, wind power, solar power, biomass energy and other kinds of new energy as well as grid systems, etc. Both sides agreed to jointly carry out Nepal-China Electric Power Cooperation Plan and complete it within one year. Both sides agreed to take this Plan as an important reference for the next step of bilateral electric power cooperation and promote its implementation.

    The Nepali side extended its deep appreciation to the Chinese side for the valuable support it has been providing in Nepal’s development efforts and for the timely, spontaneous and generous support extended to Nepal’s reconstruction after the earthquake in 2015.

    The Chinese government will continue to provide assistance to Nepal’s economic and social development within its capacity with an emphasis on strengthening cooperation in the field of improving people’s livelihood.

    The Chinese side attached great importance to the aspiration of the Nepali side to establish a multidisciplinary Madan Bhandari University for Science and Technology as a mark of respect to People’s Leader Late Madan Bhandari and will extend support at the earliest date after the Nepali side chooses a suitable site for the university. Both sides will continue their discussion on the basis of the report to be submitted by the site visit working group of the Chinese side.

    The Chinese side is willing to expedite the project of improving the quality of supplied water in Kathmandu.

    The Chinese side noted Nepal’s proposal on Integrated Development, including resettlement of scattered population in the Himalayan Region of Nepal. The Chinese side is willing to share experiences and consider cooperating with the Nepali side on this proposal.

  7. Recognizing that Mount Sagarmatha /Zhumulangma is an eternal symbol of the friendship between Nepal and China, the two sides will promote cooperation in different fields, including addressing climate change and protecting the environment. They will jointly announce the height of the Mount Sagarmatha/Zhumulangma and conduct scientific researches.

  8. Both sides expressed satisfaction with the signing of the Agreement between the Government of Nepal and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on Boundary Management System, which will improve the level of boundary management and cooperation for both sides. They were also satisfied with signing the Treaty on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters and expressed hope for an early conclusion of the Treaty on Extradition. The two sides agreed to strengthen cooperation between the law enforcement agencies on information exchanges, capacity building and training. In the next 3 years, China will offer 100 training opportunities to the Nepali law enforcement officers each year. With a view to promoting cooperation in security sector, the two sides will continue to strengthen cooperation in the exchange of visits of the security personnel, joint exercises and training, disaster prevention and reduction and personnel training.

  9. The two sides agreed to promote exchanges and cooperation in education, culture, tourism, traditional medicine, media, think tanks and youth at different levels. The Chinese side will offer the Nepali side 100 Confucius Institute Scholarships. The Chinese side supports the Nepali side to hold the activity of Visit Nepal Year 2020, welcomes the Nepali side to participate in the travel marts held in China and is willing to facilitate Nepal’s promotion on tourism in China. The Chinese side will hold the 9th China Festival and the 4th Kathmandu Cultural Forum in Nepal, and continue to encourage the Chinese Cultural Centre and the Confucius Institute to promote Nepal-China cultural exchanges and cooperation. The two sides welcomed that Kathmandu of Nepal and Nanjing of China and Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City of Nepal and Xi’an city of China had developed friendship-city relations.

  10. The Chinese side consented to the establishment of Nepal’s Consulate General in Chengdu, Sichuan Province of China.

  11. Both sides agreed to revitalize the existing mechanisms between the two countries to further strengthen relations and advance mutually beneficial cooperation in various fields.

  12. Both sides agreed to strengthen cooperation in the United Nations and other multilateral fora and to safeguard common interests of developing countries. Both sides exchanged fruitful views on promoting collaboration and strengthening cooperation in regional issues and agreed to support each other on matters of mutual interest. The two sides expressed firm commitment to the multilateral trading regime and work for a more open, inclusive and balanced economic globalization with shared benefits.

  13. Both sides held that President Xi Jinping’s State visit, on the historic occasion of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, to Nepal marked the beginning of a new era in Nepal-China relations and served as an important milestone in the history of friendly cooperation between the two countries. The Chinese side would like to extend its sincere gratitude to the Government of Nepal and its people for their warm and friendly reception.

President Xi Jinping sincerely invited Nepali leaders to visit China again at the convenience of both sides. The two sides will stay in touch via diplomatic channels.

13 October 2019

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The full text of the statement issued by India's Ministry of External Affairs on the 2nd India-China Informal Summit follows:

2nd India-China Informal Summit
October 12, 2019

The Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi and the President of the People's Republic of China Mr Xi Jinping held their Second Informal Summit in Chennai, India, on 11-12 October 2019.

  1. The two Leaders had an in-depth exchange of views in a friendly atmosphere on overarching, long-term and strategic issues of global and regional importance.

  2. They also shared their respective approaches towards national development.

  3. They evaluated the direction of bilateral relations in a positive light and discussed how India-China bilateral interaction can be deepened to reflect the growing role of both countries on the global stage.

  4. Both Leaders shared the view that the international situation is witnessing significant readjustment. They were of the view that India and China share the common objective of working for a peaceful, secure and prosperous world in which all countries can pursue their development within a rules-based international order.

  5. They reiterated the consensus reached during the first Informal Summit in Wuhan, China in April 2018, that India and China are factors for stability in the current international landscape and that both side will prudently manage their differences and not allow differences on any issue to become disputes.

  6. The Leaders recognized that India and China have a common interest in preserving and advancing a rules-based and inclusive international order, including through reforms that reflect the new realities of the 21st Century. Both agreed that it is important to support and strengthen the rules-based multilateral trading system at a time when globally agreed trade practices and norms are being selectively questioned. India and China will continue to work together for open and inclusive trade arrangements that will benefit all countries.

  7. Both Leaders also underscored the important efforts being made in their respective countries to address global developmental challenges, including climate change and the Sustainable Development Goals. They emphasized that their individual efforts in this regard would help the international community achieve the targets.

  8. Both Leaders are concerned that terrorism continues to pose a common threat. As countries that are large and diverse, they recognized the importance of continuing to make joint efforts to ensure that the international community strengthens the framework against training, financing and supporting terrorist groups throughout the world and on a non-discriminatory basis.

  9. As important contemporary civilizations with great traditions, both Leaders deemed it important to enhance dialogue in order to foster cultural understanding between the two peoples. Both Leaders also agreed that, as major civilizations in history, they can work together to enhance greater dialogue and understanding between cultures and civilizations in other parts of the world.

  10. They shared the view that an open, inclusive, prosperous and stable environment in the region is important to ensure the prosperity and stability of the region. They also agreed on the importance of concluding negotiations for a mutually-beneficial and balanced Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.

  11. The two Leaders exchanged views on the age-old commercial linkages and people-to-people contacts between India and China in the past two millennia, including significant maritime contacts. In this regard the two leaders agreed on establishment of sister-state relations between Tamil Nadu and Fujian Province, exploring the possibility of establishing an academy to study links between Mahabalipuram and Fujian province on the lines of the experience between Ajanta and Dunhuang and conducting research on maritime links between China and India in view of our extensive contacts over the centuries.

  12. The two Leaders shared their mutual vision on goals for development of their respective economies. They agreed that the simultaneous development of India and China presents mutually-beneficial opportunities. The two sides will continue to adopt a positive, pragmatic and open attitude and to enhance appreciation of each other’s policies and actions in line with the general direction of their friendship and cooperation. In this regard, they also agreed to continue to enhance strategic communication on all matters of mutual interest, and to continue the momentum of high-level exchanges by making full use of dialogue mechanisms.

  13. The leaders were of the view that the positive direction of ties had opened up possibilities for taking bilateral relations to greater heights. They agreed that this endeavor also required strong public support in both countries. In this context the two Leaders have decided to designate 2020 as Year of India-China Cultural and People to People Exchanges and agreed that the 70th anniversary of the establishment of India-China relations in 2020 will be fully utilized to deepen exchanges at all levels including between their respective legislatures, political parties, cultural and youth organizations and militaries. To celebrate the 70th anniversary of diplomatic relations the two countries will organize 70 activities including a conference on a ship voyage that will trace the historical connect between the two civilizations.

  14. In pursuit of their efforts to further deepen economic cooperation and to enhance their closer development partnership, the two Leaders have decided to establish a High-Level Economic and Trade Dialogue mechanism with the objective of achieving enhanced trade and commercial relations, as well as to better balance the trade between the two countries. They have also agreed to encourage mutual investments in identified sectors through the development of a Manufacturing Partnership and tasked their officials to develop this idea at the first meeting of the High-Level Economic and Trade Dialogue.

  15. The two Leaders have exchanged views on outstanding issues, including on the boundary question. They have welcomed the work of the Special Representatives and urged them to continue their efforts to arrive at a mutually-agreed framework for a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable settlement based on Political Parameters and Guiding Principles that were agreed by the two sides in 2005. They reiterated their understanding that efforts will continue to be made to ensure peace and tranquility in the border areas, and that both sides will continue to work on additional Confidence Building Measures in pursuit of this objective.

  16. Prime Minister Modi and President Xi also appraised the practice of Informal Summits in a positive light as providing an important opportunity to deepen dialogue and to promote mutual understanding at the Leaders’ level in line with the ‘Wuhan Spirit’ and the ‘Chennai Connect”. They agreed to continue this practice in the future. President Xi invited Prime Minister Modi to visit China for the 3rd Informal Summit. Prime Minister Modi has accepted the invitation.

12 October 2019

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The full text of Chinese Foreign Minister on Xi Jinping's visits to India and Nepal

The Road Ahead Is Long and Winding Though, A Start Will Bring An Arrival --State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi on President Xi Jinping's Attendance at the Second Informal Meeting Between Chinese and Indian Leaders in India and His State Visit to Nepal


From October 11 to 13, 2019, President Xi Jinping travelled to India for the second informal meeting between Chinese and Indian leaders and paid a state visit to Nepal upon invitation. As the trip comes to the end, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi briefed the accompanying journalists on the visits.

Wang Yi said, China has just celebrated the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, and President Xi Jinping embarked on a new diplomatic journey and visited South Asia, outlining the neighborhood diplomacy and making overall planning. Over the past three days and two nights, President Xi Jinping has spared no effort to attend a number of activities, ranging from grand and warm state activities to informal and in-depth talks. President Xi Jinping has planned the long-term development of relations between China and the two countries from a historical perspective, a strategic perspective and a realistic perspective. The two countries attached great importance to President Xi Jinping and gave him a grand and warm welcome. Local people sang and danced to welcome President Xi Jinping. The visits, with rich content and fruitful results, have injected new impetus into China's relations with India and Nepal, built a new platform for good-neighborliness and friendliness in South Asia and opened up new prospects for regional practical cooperation. The visits have drawn keen interest of both Chinese and foreign media and are generally regarded as visits of historic significance.

I. Enhance strategic mutual trust between China and India and explore a path of win-win coexistence

Wang Yi said, high-level strategic guidance is an irreplaceable guarantee for the sound and stable development of China-India relations. In April last year, President Xi Jinping and Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India had a successful meeting in Wuhan, ushering bilateral relations into a new stage of sound development. Prime Minister Narendra Modi warmly invited President Xi Jinping to attend the second informal meeting between Chinese and Indian leaders in India. He selected Chennai, a famous historical and cultural city, as the meeting venue, and made arrangements for the meeting personally. President Xi Jinping arrived as expected. From the banks of the Yangtze River to the Indian Ocean, from Wuhan to Chennai, the leaders of the two countries took their time to discuss the international situation in an all-round way, steering the course for the development of China-India relations.

The visit enhances the in-depth strategic communication. During his stay in India, President Xi Jinping had long and in-depth exchanges of views with Prime Minister Narendra Modi, talking about the experience of China and India working together for national independence and liberation, the pioneering work of jointly advocating the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and the aspirations of jointly realizing the Chinese dream and the Indian dream. President Xi Jinping stressed, the world is undergoing major changes unseen in a century. China and India, as the two most populous countries, the two largest developing countries and representatives of emerging economies, are both at a critical stage of national development and national renewal. Both countries share huge potential and broad space for cooperation. Bilateral relations have transcended the bilateral scope and are of great and far-reaching strategic significance. China and India should be good neighbors living in harmony and good partners going forward hand in hand. It is the only correct choice of both sides to realize the duet of the Chinese "dragon" and the Indian "elephant", which serves best the fundamental interests of the two countries and their peoples and the lasting peace and prosperity of the world. The two sides should communicate on major issues in a timely fashion, respect each other's core interests, gradually seek understanding and constantly resolve differences. The Chinese side hopes to develop well, and has the same hope for India. Prime Minister Narendra Modi spoke highly of President Xi Jinping's foresight and sagacity, saying that entering the 21st century, the world peace and human progress cannot be achieved without India-China cooperation. The two countries should not only face history, but also transcend the past and open up the future. The two sides should accommodate each other's major concerns, effectively manage and handle differences, prevent differences from becoming disputes, develop a closer partnership and usher in a new era of India-China relations.

The visit promotes mutually beneficial cooperation in various fields. President Xi Jinping and Prime Minister Narendra Modi put forward clear goals and clear ideas on deepening and expanding practical cooperation. They decided to set up a high-level economic and trade dialogue mechanism to strengthen the alignment of economic development strategies, and promote balanced and sustainable growth of bilateral trade by exploring the establishment of a manufacturing partnership. The two leaders agreed to expand "China-India Plus" cooperation, advance regional connectivity building, and work with other parties to conclude the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership at an early date. In the face of rising unilateralism and protectionism, the two sides agreed to strengthen coordination within such multilateral frameworks as the G20, the BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the China-Russia-India cooperation, take a clear-cut stand to maintain the international system with the United Nations as the core and the international order based on international law, uphold multilateralism and the multilateral trade system, and jointly cope with global challenges.

The visit advances exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations. Accompanied by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, President Xi Jinping visited the Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, a site of Indian civilization. Prime Minister Narendra Modi explained the details in person. The two leaders traced the origins of mutual learning between Chinese and Indian civilizations and outlined a blueprint for people-to-people and cultural exchanges and dialogue. President Xi Jinping pointed out, China and India are both ancient civilizations with a history of thousands of years and enjoy exchanges and mutual learning till now. China and India should carry out people-to-people and cultural exchanges in a wider range and at a deeper level, jointly advocate and promote dialogue and exchanges among different civilizations, and continue to renew the glory of Asian civilizations. Prime Minister Narendra Modi fully agreed on this, saying that the wisdom in our two ancient and profound civilizations provides enlightenment for solving various challenges facing the world today. President Xi Jinping's visit has tightened the ties between the two ancient civilizations. The two sides agreed to designate 2020 as the China-India year of cultural and people-to-people exchange, and hold 70 events to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and India.

The two leaders spoke positively of the outcomes of the meeting and agreed to continue to maintain this useful and productive strategic communication. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has accepted President Xi Jinping's invitation and will travel to China again for meetings.

II. Deepen the traditional friendship between China and Nepal and strengthen the bond of amicability

Wang Yi said, for more than half of a century since the establishment of diplomatic relations, China and Nepal have always respected, trusted and supported each other, setting a fine example of harmonious coexistence between countries with different systems and sizes. Nepal is China's important partner of the joint building of the Belt and Road Initiative in South Asia, and the successive administrations of Nepal have all been friendly to China. Nepal has just finished political transformation and faces new opportunities for stability and development. The Nepali side has repeatedly invited President Xi Jinping to visit Nepal and looks forward to strengthening bilateral cooperation to boost its own economic and social development. In the first state visit to Nepal by a Chinese president in 23 years, President Xi Jinping and the leaders of the Nepali side jointly planned for the future development of bilateral relations, and witnessed the signing of 20 cooperation documents concerning various areas of the national interest and people's livelihood, opening up new and bright prospects for the lasting friendship between China and Nepal.

Bilateral relations have been lifted to a new height. President Xi Jinping and President Bidya Devi Bhandari announced together China-Nepal strategic partnership of cooperation featuring ever-lasting friendship for development and prosperity in line with the spirit of mutual support and win-win cooperation. Such a new positioning helps chart the course for future development of bilateral relations, and makes China-Nepal relations even more influential in the region. President Xi Jinping noted, both countries should regard building a community with a shared future of both countries as the long-term goal of the development of bilateral relations. The Chinese side respects the social system and development path independently chosen by the Nepali side and supports the Nepali side's efforts in safeguarding national independence, sovereignty and legitimate rights. The Chinese side stands ready to work with the Nepali side to maintain common security and enhance communication and coordination in multilateral areas. Nepali leaders such as President Bidya Devi Bhandari, Prime Minister Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli, Co-chairman of the Nepal Communist Party Pushpa Kamal Dahal and President of the Nepali Congress Party Sher Bahadur Deuba all expressed that Nepal and China are close friends sharing weal and woe, and that there is no problem between the two countries but only friendship and cooperation. The Nepali side stands firm in upholding the One China policy and will never allow any force to use its territory for separatist activities against China. No matter how the international circumstances change, the Nepali side will resolutely follow the friendly policy toward China. We feel deeply that our friendship has a solid non-governmental foundation, and has become the consensus of various political parties and all walks of life in Nepal.

New progress in connectivity construction between the two sides has been made. President Xi Jinping and Nepali leaders have agreed to align the joint building of the Belt and Road Initiative by China and Nepal with Nepal's national development strategy of transforming itself into a land-linked country. The two countries will accelerate the building of the Trans-Himalayan Multi-Dimensional Connectivity Network through connectivity projects including ports, highways, railways, aviation and communications. The two sides have announced the launch of a feasibility study of the China-Nepal cross-border railway, which marks a huge step toward our dream of connectivity. All walks of life in Nepal believe that strengthening connectivity under the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative gives the Nepali side the hope of transforming itself from a landlocked to a land-linked country. The Trans-Himalayan Multi-Dimensional Connectivity Network will tighten the bonds between both countries and help the Nepali side play the role of a bridge in economic development in the region, which will be convenient for both countries and beneficial to the region.

Good-neighborly and friendly cooperation between the two countries has also yielded new results. President Xi Jinping pointed out, the two sides need to build an all-around cooperation pattern, and particularly enhance their cooperation in four areas of trade and investment, post-disaster reconstruction, energy and tourism. As Nepal boasts huge hydropower resources, President Xi Jinping said, the Chinese side is willing to share experience in hydropower resources exploration. The Chinese side has pledged to continue supporting Nepal in the country's post-disaster reconstruction, and providing support and assistance within China's capacity for the improvement of local people's livelihood. The two sides agreed to expand exchanges and cooperation in such fields as education and youth, and at local levels to enhance people-to-people bonds. Regarding Mount Zhumulangma as the epitome of our friendship, both countries will carry out cooperation centering on Mount Zhumulangma in such areas including climate change and ecotourism and make them the new highlights of bilateral cooperation.

III. Maintain regional peace and stability and promote regional common development

Wang Yi said, the recent strained India-Pakistan relations and unrest and turbulence in the region have drawn grave concerns from the international community. Both India and Pakistan are friendly neighbors of China, and the Chinese side hopes that the two countries can properly manage and control differences and improve their relations. Prior to his trip to South Asia, President Xi Jinping listened to the views and propositions of the Pakistani side in his meeting with Prime Minister Imran Khan of Pakistan. In Chennai, President Xi Jinping had in-depth communication on the regional situation with Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and encouraged all parties concerned to solve the current issues through dialogue. President Xi Jinping stressed, the Chinese side sincerely expects sound China-India relations, China-Pakistan relations and India-Pakistan relations, and expects to see all sides work together to promote regional peace and stability, and achieve common development and prosperity. President Xi Jinping also elaborated on the Chinese side's propositions on enhancing "China-India Plus" cooperation and stressed that the cooperation can be gradually expanded to other countries in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Africa on the basis of the existing "China-India-Afghanistan" cooperation. President Xi Jinping pointed out, China and India should play a leading role in regional connectivity construction, and create a smoother connectivity network. The two sides should also work together to contribute to the early conclusion of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership agreement. The leaders of the two countries have formed a positive consensus on this. Wang Yi said, the Chinese side is willing to develop and deepen mutually beneficial cooperation with all South Asian countries. China's respective relations with India, Pakistan and other South Asian countries, with respective unique history and characteristics, can run in parallel and develop together, neither targeting any third party nor being influenced by a third party.

IV. Share China's successful experience and showcase China's bright future

Wang Yi said, the international community has lively discussions about the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China and pays attention to China's success story and its global significance. During the visits, leaders of India and Nepal once again extended warm congratulations to President Xi Jinping, expressing their sincere admirations for the remarkable achievements China has made in the past seven decades. President Xi Jinping made incisive statement on China's experience in successful development, briefed on the original aspirations and mission of the Communist Party of China, and had in-depth exchanges on state governance and administration with foreign leaders.

President Xi Jinping pointed out, over the past 70 years, the Chinese nation has realized a tremendous transformation: it has stood up, grown rich and is becoming stronger, creating Chinese miracles that the world has marveled at. This is an extraordinary journey with flowers and applauses, as well as bumps and challenges. No matter how the external situation changes, China will unswervingly run its own affairs well and advance socialism with Chinese characteristics regardless of outside noises. A stable, open and prosperous China will always be a development opportunity for the world. Leaders of both countries said, China's development sets an example of self-reliance for developing countries, and creates significant opportunities for the two countries, South Asia and the world to achieve peace and prosperity. China's development and rise are unstoppable. Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, India and China, both in the process of national rejuvenation, are facing many similar challenges, and the Indian side is willing to learn the Chinese side's successful practices in poverty alleviation, ecological civilization construction and anti-corruption. The Nepali side looks forward to drawing useful experience from China's great success, and believes that China can help Nepal realize its vision of "Prosperous Nepal, Happy Nepali".

Wang Yi said at last, President Xi Jinping's visits show another successful practice of the major country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics. The Himalayas separate China from India and Nepal. However, a start will bring an arrival even the road ahead is long and winding though. President Xi Jinping makes friends wholeheartedly, resolves differences with sincerity and promotes cooperation with persistence, showcasing the resolution and mission to turn a deep chasm into a thoroughfare and promote the building of a community with a shared future with neighboring countries. We will earnestly implement Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy and neighborhood diplomacy featuring amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness, enhance solidarity and cooperation with developing countries and emerging economies, and constantly break new ground in the major country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics, so as to create sound neighboring and external conditions for realizing the two centenary goals.

External Links:
UN.org: At UN, Modi outlines development successes, says India gave world ‘Buddha, not war’
The Japan Times: Xi pledges Chinese aid and development in Nepal visit, including rail and tunnel links
India Today: Is there a hidden Chinese message in Modi-Xi Jinping meet?
The Economic Times: Full text of PM Modi's speech at UNGA
Chinese Foreign Ministry: Chinese Foreign Minister on Xi Jinping's visits to India and Nepal
Spotlight Nepal : Xi Arrives In Kathmandu To Forge A Bold New Chapter, Pitch Trans-Himalayan corridor



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