Know the Etymology: 18
Place Name of the Day: Friday, 07 April 2017

Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam, Pallavarāyaṉ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam, Cēttuk-kuḷam, Āmpal-kuḷam

கட்டுக்குளம், பல்லவராயன்கட்டுக்குளம், சேத்துக்குளம், ஆம்பல்குளம்
Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam, Pallavarāyaṉ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam, Cēttuk-kuḷam, Āmpal-kuḷam

Cēttu+kuḷam/ Cēṟu+kuḷam

The dammed tank or reservoir

The tank, the dam of which was built by Pallavarāyaṉ

The muddy pond or tank

The pond or tank of a kind of waterlily

Kuḷam tank, lake, reservoir (Tamil, Caṅkam and modern, DED 1828); also a general term for a pond (Tamil, Kuṟuntokai, 325: 4-5); tank (Malayalam DED1828); Kuḷaṉ: variation of Kuḷam (Tamil, Tolkāppiyam, 22: 5); Kuḷi: (verb) to bathe, dive, plunge into water (Tamil, Puṟanāṉūṟu, 2: 10, DED 1832); Kuḷa: tank, pond (Tulu, DED 1828); Koḷa, Koḷahe, Koṇa: pond (Kannada, DED 1828); Kolanu, Kolāku, Kolākuvu: tank, (Telugu, DED1828); Kol: tank (Gondi, DED 1818); Kulama: tank (Sinhala, usually in Sinhalicised place names); Kulya: small river, canal, ditch (Sanskrit, Rig Vedic, possible Dravidian etymology cited, CDIAL 3352); Kūla: pond, tank (Sanskrit, possible Dravidian etymology cited, CDIAL 3352); note the root Ku related to pit and pond in other Dravidian words; Kuṭai: (verb) to scoop, hollow out (Tamil, DED 1660); Kuṭṭam, Kuṭṭai: depth, pond (Tamil, DED 1669); Kuṇṭu: depth, hollow, pond (Tamil, DED 1669); Koḷḷa: a deep place (Kannada, DED 2157); Kolamē: a very deep pit (Tulu, DED 2157); Kuḻi: (verb) to be hollowed out, sink hollow (Tamil, cognates in 17 Dravidian languages, DED 1818); Kuḻi: pit, hole, hollow, cavity, depression, excavation, pond, well (Tamil, DED 1818); Kuḷī: tank, the locality of a tank; "Vẹva, Vẹvaṭa āsanna pradeśaya" (Sinhala, Sorata, inscriptions, Epigraphia Zeylanica, I, 203); Kulī: = Kuḷama (Sinhala, Sorata); tank or the neighbourhood of a tank; "Vẹva, hō vẹvaṭa asala pedesa" (Sinhala, Sorata, inscriptions, Epigraphia Zeylanica, IV, 188); Kuḷi: freshwater lake (Dhivehi/ Maldivian, DBF, such lakes are usually found in the shallow center of large islets. Sometimes they are marshes or swamps); Kiḷi: = Kuḷi (Addu and Fuvah Mulakku dialect of Dhivehi/ Maldivian, DBF); Kuḷu: = Kuḷi (Maldivian island-names, EDMIN). See column 65 for Kulama in Sinhala
Kaṭṭu(noun) dam; (verb) to build, tie, fasten, (Tamil, DED 1147); (noun) dam of a tank, "Vẹv-niyara" (Sinhala, Sorata). Meaning of a dam, Kaṭṭu alone often stands for a tank and for the place where the tank is located. See other columns on the different meanings and usages of Kaṭṭu in place names
Pallavarāyaṉ also Pallavaraiyaṉ: title of a high official or commander, as seen in Tamil inscriptions between late 8th century CE and 13th century CE (Tamil, inscriptions; examples: Pańcavaṉ Pallavaraiyaṉ, 780 CE, SII, xiv, 17; Aṇṇaṉ Pallavarāyaṉ, 1175 CE, EI, xxii, 14); a high official or commander, either coming from the Pallava country or connected to the Pallave country; many having the title were in the service of the Cholas; Araiyaṉ: also Aracaṉ, Araicaṉ: king, soverign, prince (Tamil, DED 201, cognates in 8 Dravidian languages; DED cites Dravidian Prakrit; Rājan: chieftain, king (Sanskrit, CDIAL 10679)
Cēttu colloquial form of Cēṟṟu: adjective of Cēṟu: mud, mire, slush, liquid of thick consistency (Tamil, DED 2020, Kuṟuntokai, 261: 3; Naṟṟiṇai, 8: 7; Puṟanāṉūṟu, 249: 1)
Āmpal water lily, Nymphaea lotus (Tamil, DED 362); a kind of water lily (Tamil, Caṅkam diction, Kuṟuntokai, 46: 1-2); a water lily which opens after sunset, equated to Kumutam (Tamil, Piṅkalam, 9: 375; 4: 244); a water lily which opens after sunset (Malayalam, DED 362); Ābal: red waterlily (Kannada, DED 362); Āmbalu: a waterlily which opens after sunset (Tulu, DED 362); Am, Ām: water (Tamil, DED 187, onomatopoeic)

Kuḷam is a common word in Tamil, meaning a pond, tank or reservoir.

The term has cognates in many Dravidian languages and is listed as Dravidian (DED 1828).

The root Ku is related to concavity in Dravidian. See box on Kuḷam for related verbs and nouns in Tamil.

Kuḷam is the most popular word noticed in Eezham Tamil place names. The distribution is seen throughout the Tamil region.

Kuḷam comes in the form Kulama in the place names of North Central and North Western Provinces. A perusal of them would show traces of recent Sinhalicisation. However, Kuḷam was not new to Sinhala. A related Dravidian cognate, Kuḷī/ Kulī, in the meaning of tank, was present in old Sinhala as testified by inscriptions (Sorata).

See column 65 for Kulama-related place names.

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Kuḷam meaning a pond:

கருங்கால் வெண் குருகு மேயும் பெருங் குளம் (குறுந்தொகை, 325: 4-5)

"Karuṅkāl veṇ kuruku mēyum peruṅ kuḷam" (Kuṟuntokai, 325: 4-5)

The big pond in which the dark-legged white bird preys on

Kuḷam meaning an irrigation tank or reservoir:

"குளக் கீழ் விளைந்த …வெண்ணெல்" (புறநானூறு, 33: 5)

"Kuḷak kīḻ viḷainta… veṇṇel" (Puṟanāṉūṟu, 33: 5)

The white-rice paddy, grown (in the fields coming) under (the irrigation of) the tank

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A dam is one of the meanings for the word Kaṭṭu in Tamil and Sinhala. The word in this meaning corresponds to the Tamil/ Dravidian verb Kaṭṭu, meaning to build, tie, fasten etc. (DED 1147). From meaning a dam, the word Kaṭṭu alone stands for a tank in many place names. See other columns on the different meanings and usages of the word Kaṭṭu in place names

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A major tank/ place called Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam is in Kuchchaveli division of Trincomalee district. In the past, an entire division, named after this reservoir, was called Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam-paṟṟu (Padaviya One Inch Sheet). Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam is also found in Kandavalai division of Kilinochchi district, Thunukkay division of Mullaiththeevu district, Karaithuraippattu division of Mullaiththeevu district and in Poratheevuppattu division of Batticaloa district. See related place names for other examples in which Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam comes as a part of the name.

Pallavarāyaṉ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam is located near Urutirapuram in Poonakari division of Kilinochchi district (Poonakari One Inch Sheet). Around 15 kms southwest of it, there is another place called Pallavarāyaṉ-kaṭṭu, in Tunukkai division of Mullaiththeevu district, where a larger tank could be found. Kaṭtu, meaning a dam, also stands for a dammed tank.

Cēttuk-kuḷam is in Manthai West division of Mannar district

Āmpal-kuḷam is the name of a small tank as well as a place in Karaichchi division of Kilinochchi district. More Āmpal-kuḷams are noted in Mullaiththeevu One Inch Sheet and in Vavuniya One Inch Sheet

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Some related place names:

Kuḷam coming in official list of villages:


Cuṇṭik-kuḷam: Vadamaratchi East, Jaffna

Neṭuṅ-kuḷam: Jaffna, Jaffna

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷattaṭi: Kayts, Jaffna

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Mannar district:

Ńāṉi-ālaṅ-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Iluppaik-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Kaṅkāṇi-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Kuńcuk-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Nēca-rācaṉ-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar. A name given recently

Noccik-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Pāppāṅ-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Periya-kaṇakkaṉ-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Ciṉṉa-kaṇakkaṉ-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Ciṟu-nāval-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Tttāvaṭi-marutaṅ-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Tuppāci-āḷaṅ-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Uppuk-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Periya-nāval-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar

Uyilaṅ-kuḷam: Mannar, Mannar

Uyirta-rācaṉ-kuḷam: Mannar Town, Mannar. A name given recently for a tank called Ūṟṟu-vāyaṉ-kuḷam or Ūttu-vāyaṉ-kuḷam

Akattik-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Ilavaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Icaṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Kaḷḷik-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Kaṇṇā-putuk-kuḷam: Manthai west, Mannar

Karampaik-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Kaṟukkāyk-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Kōṭṭaik-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Kumaṇayaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Kuṟińcāk-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Kuruntaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Mainip-pul-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Mārik-kuḷam: Manthai west, Mannar. Māri: rainy season

Mariyā-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar. Mariyā: Mary

Marutōṇṭuvān-Veḷḷāṅ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Veḷḷāṅ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar. Veḷḷāṉ: a member of the cultivating caste or community; Veḷḷāmai, Veḷḷāṇmai: cultivation; from the root Viḷai: to cultivate, produce, grow etc., (Tamil, DED 5437); or from Vēḷ: a great man, chief (Tamil, DED 5545)

Kōyil-kuḷam: Manthai West, Manthai; Nanaddan, Mannar

Karuṅ-kaṇṭal Vaṇṇā-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar. Vaṇṇāṉ: launderer (Tamil, DED 5241)

Āṇṭāṉ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar. Āṇṭāṉ: see column 120

Kāttāṉ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar. Kāttāṉ: protector, the folk deity Kāttavarāyan; Kā: (verb) to protect (Tamil, DED 1416)

Pālaiyaṭi-putuk-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar. Pālaiyaṭi: the village name

Naḷavaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Oluk-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Pūk-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Putuk-kuḷam: Manthai West, Manna

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Cētu-vināyakar-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Cēttuk-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Cavēri-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar. Cavēri: Xavier

Cōḻa-maṇṭalak-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Paṟaiya-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Cultāṉ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar. Cultān: Sultan, often comes as a personal name

Tāmaraik-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Timila-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Vaṇṇā-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar; Madu, Mannar

Viḷāttik-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar; Madu, Mannar

Alai-kal-pōṭṭa-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Ampaṭṭa-iluppaik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Cekkaṭik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Cēmanāttiyaṉ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Iraṇai-iluppaik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Kākkaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Kaḷḷik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Kaṅkāṇi-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Karampaik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Karaiyāṉ-kaṭṭiṉa-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Kollaṉ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Kuṇṭu-maṇik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Muḷḷik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Neṭuṅ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Paṉaiyaṭik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Paṇṭāra-iluppaik-kuḷam: Madu, Manar

Paṇikkar-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Paṟaṅki-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Periya-kuńcuk-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Pēyaṉ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Pūcāriyār-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Pulaviṟ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Ramanāta-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Ciṉṉa-aracaṅ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Ciṉṉa-kuńcuk-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Ciṉṉak-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Ciṟu-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Talaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Tampaṉaik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Uvaci-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar. Uvaci: Upatēci: preacher

Villiyaṉ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Vināyakar-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Āṭiya-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Aṉṉammā-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Viḷāttik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Kākkaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Iṟaṇai-iluppaik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar

Naṟuvilik-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar. Naṟuvili: sebestan plum, Cordia myxa (Tamil, DED 3627); Naṟuḷi: another form of the name Naṟuvili (Tamil, DED 3627); Naṟuvari: Cordia myxa (Malayalam, DED 3627); Nakkera: Cordia myxa (Telugu, DED 3627); Viracu, Viricu, Virucu: large sebestan; Viriyaṉ: common sebestan (Tamil, DED 5408); Virigi: Cordia sebestena (Telugu, DED 5408); Kūḻa: the name commonly found used for Naṟuvili in Eezham Tamil, perhaps from the pulpy nature of its fruits. Kūḻ: thick gruel, porridge, semi-liquid food, food (Tamil, DED 1911)

Vańciyaṉ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar. Vańciyaṉ: probably Valańciyaṉ

Iraṭṭaik-kuḷam: Nanaddan. Mannar

Accaṉ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar. Accaṉ: father (Tamil, DED 50); father, lord (Malayalam, DED 50); Acci: mother, a woman of the Nayar community (Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, DED 50)

Iṭaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Iṟakkai-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Kompaṉ-cāynta-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Kollar-ciṟu-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Kaḷi-mōṭṭai Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Kaṟ-kiṭanta-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Kōṭṭaik-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Makiḻaṅ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Mūrkkarāyaṉ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Mayiliṟakuk-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Naḷavaṉ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Noccik-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar; Musali, Mannar

Paḷḷaṉ-kōṭṭai-ciṟu-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Paṇikkar-ciṟu-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Pācik-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Periya-vaṇṇā-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Pettāṉ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Pūppūttāṉ-kuḷam: Nanaddaan, Mannar

Pūvaracaṅ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Cāmpaṉ-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Ciṉṉa-vaṇṇā-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Tēttāk-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Uṭaiyāvai-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Vāḻkkaippaṭṭāṉ-kaṇṭal Mēt-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Vaṅkālaik-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Vaṇṇā-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Akamatu-nainā-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Aḷavakkai-ciṟu-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Nūrāni-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Pālaiyaṭi-ciṟu-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Pāḻk-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Periya-kūmak-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Periya-noccik-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Periya-taṇakkaṉ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Piccai-vāṇipaṉ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Cāypu-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar. Cāypu: Saibu, Saheb

Ciṉṉa-noccik-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Ciṉṉa-taṇakkaṉ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Cōṉaka Neduṅ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Tampaṭṭa-mutali-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Pū-noccik-kuḷam: Musali. Mannar

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Kollaṉ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Muḷḷik-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Antōṉi-melińci-kuḷam: near Arippu, Musali, Mannar. Note another place name Melińci-muṉai in Kayts

Arippu-veṭṭuk-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar. The Veṭṭuk-kuḷam in Arippu

Caṭaiyappaṉ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Ceṭṭiyappaṉ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Ilai-kaṟik-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Ilantaik-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Ilantai-mōṭṭaik-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Ittik-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Kiṅkiṇiyār-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Kōṭṭaik-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Kōṉār-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Kūḻāṅ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Kūmak-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Kōviṟ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Maṇaṯ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Muḷḷik-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Muttirai-paṟi-ālaṅ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Nācuvaṉ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar. Nācuvaṉ: = Nāvitan: barber

Vaṭṭak-kōṭṭaik-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Vaṇṇā-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar

Viyāṭik-kuḷam: Viyā-aṭik-kuḷam; Musali, Mannar

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Vavuniya district:

Āṇṭār-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya North, Vavuniya

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya North, Vavuniya

Maṇṇā-kuḷam: Vavuniya North, Vavuniya

Īrap-periya-kuḷam: Vavuniya North, Vavuniya

Kaṟ-kuḷam: Vavuniya North, Vavuniya

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya North, Vavuniya. Puḷi: acidity, tartness, tamarind (Tamil, DED 4322)

Kaṉakarāyaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya North, Vavuniya.

Maṇṇā-kuḷam: Vavuniya South, Vavuniya

Periya-uḷuk-kuḷam: Vavuniya South, Vavuniya

Pāvaṟ-kuḷam: Vavuniya South, Vavuniya. Pāval, Pākal: balsam pear, Momordica charantia (Tamil, DED 4045)

Īrap-periya-kuḷam: Vavuniya South, Vavuniya. Īṟal: big forest (Batticaloa glossary, Kanthaiya)

Neṭuṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya South, Vavuniya

Mahā-mayilaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya South, Vavuniya

Putu-viḷāṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya South, Vavuniya. Recently Sinhalicised as Pudu-bulan-kulama

Paṉṟikkeyta-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya. Paṇṟikku-eyta-kuḷam

Āṟumukattāṉ-putuk-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Makiḻaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Marutaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Iḷa-marutaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Kaḷḷik-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya. Kaḷḷi: cactus type of plants, spurge, milk hedge, prickly bear, Euphobia, Euphorbia tirucalli, Opuntia dillenii (Tamil, DED 1383)

Putuk-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Mahā-rampaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Neḷuk-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Cāḷampaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Cāstiri-Kūḻāṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Īccaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Pūvaracaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Rācēntiraṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Kūmaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Kōyil-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Veḷik-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Camaḷaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Āci-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Rampaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Vairavap-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Paṇṭārik-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya. Paṇṭāri: a community of Saiva religious mendicants (Tamil); Baṇṭāri: a community of religious mendicants (Āńḍi-kula) found in Vavuniyaa (Sinhala, Sorata, citing Codrington). See column 20

Vēlaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Mayilaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Mahā-rampaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Kūmaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Kāttār-ciṉṉak-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Paṭṭāṇicci Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Puvaracaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Āṇṭiyā-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya. Āṇṭi: See column 20

Pirāmaṇālaṅ-kuḷam: Pirāmaṇa-ālaṅ-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya

Periya-puḷi-ālaṅ-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya

Kurukkaḷ-putuk-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya

Pāvaṟ-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya

Mutaliyār-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya

Ciṉṉa-cippik-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya

Nēriya-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya. Nēri: dam

Ceṭṭi-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya

Kiristō-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulama, Vavuniya

Mukattāṉ-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya

Kaṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya. Kaṅku: ridge, dam

Veṅkalac-ceṭṭi-kuḷam: Venkalachcheddikulam, Vavuniya. Veṇ-kalam: bronze, bronze ware, literally meaning the bright ware (Tamil); from Veṇ: white, shining, bright (Tamil, DED 5496); kalam: vessel, utensil, plate (Tamil, DED 1305); Veṇ-kalam: also silver ware: "Ūn tuvai aṭicil veḷḷi veṇ-kalattu ūṭṭa" (Puṟanāṉūṟu: 390: 17-18); bronze, also called Kańcam (Piṅkala Nikaṇṭu, 6: 140); a metal (Tamil inscription, SII, viii, 557)

* * *

Mullaiththeevu district:

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Ampalap-perumāḷ-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Anicciyaṉ-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu. Anicciyaṉ: Aṇińcil, Aḻińcil: a tree

Iyaṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu. Iyaṅku: a thorny shrub Karampaik-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Kīḻk-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Kollaṉ-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Kottampiyā-kuḷam: Thuniukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Kōṭṭai-kaṭṭiya-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu. Probably a tank from where earth was taken to build a fort

Teṉṉiyaṉ-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu. Teṉṉiyaṉ: related to the Pandya dynasty. Another tank in the locality is called Cōḻiyaṉ-kuḷam

Kuńcuk-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Maṇal-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Navanaṉ-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Putuk-kuḷam: Tunukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Ammi-vaitta-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kolla-viḷāṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Oṭṭaṟutta-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mulaiththeevu. Oṭṭu-aṟutta-kuḷam

Pūvaracaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Cirāṭṭik-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu. Cirāṭṭi: a ceremonial cloth noted in the annals of Vanni; a white cloth tinged with saffron at each end (Manual of Vanni, p. 104); may be a sign like Bōlāna

Vaṉṉi-viḷāṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Āṇṭa-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Āṇṭiyā-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Appāṇṭiyaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Iḷa-marutaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Iṟamaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kaṇakkaṉā-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Karampaik-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kaṟ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kiṭāy-piṭitta-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kolla-viḷāṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kompu-vaitta-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kukanayaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kumarik-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kumiḻaṭik-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kumiḻaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Kummā-kuḻam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu. Kummā, Kommā: probably meaning a forest or thicket

Maṇaṟ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Mūppayaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Muṟiya-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Nāvaṟ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Neṭuṅ-kēṇik-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Nīlap-piṭṭiyā-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu; Nīlam: indigo plant

Oṭṭaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Oṭṭaṟutta-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Pāṇṭiyaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Periya-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Piḷḷaiyaṉār-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Pirāmaṇālaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Pūtar-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Pūvaracaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Caṅkanyan-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Cempar-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Ciṉṉāṉ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Cirāṭṭik-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Tekkilāṉ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Tuvaraṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Vairavap-periya-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Vaṉṉi-viḷāṅ-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Vavunik-kuḷam: Manthai East, Mullaiththeevu

Yā-maruta-kuḷam: Manthai east, Mullaiththeevu

Kai-vēlik-kuḷam: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Kal-vāṉ-kuḷam: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Kumarēcaṉ-kuḷam: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Kuńcuk-kuḷam: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Maṇal-kuḷam: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Naṭaṉamiṭṭāṉ-kuḷam: Puthukkuḍiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu. May be like Kaṭṭāṭi, Pēyaṭi, Kuttāṭi etc.

Oṭṭaṉ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Caṭavakkaṉ-kuḷam: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Ālaṭik-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Alai-kalup-pōṭṭa-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Alla-veṭṭuvāṉ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Ampalavan-paṟṟuk-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Amutaṉ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Iyaṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Kaṅkāṇiyā-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Karampaik-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Kātaliyār-camaḷaṅ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu. Kātaliyār: legends associate the place with a woman

Māṅ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Muttaiyaṉ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu. Muttaiyaṉ: Muttu-aiyaṉ

Paṇikkaṉ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Periya-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Kiḻavaṉ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Koyyāk-kuḷam: Oddusuddan. Mullaiththeevu

Māṇṭa-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Maṇiyar-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Māṅ-kuḷam: Oddusudaan, Mullaiththeevu

Meiya-kalluk-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Mutaliyā-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Mutiyaṉ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Nāvik-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Paṭṭip-pilavuk-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Paṇikkaṉ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Periya-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Periya-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Pirāmaṇālaṅ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Putuk-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Puttuyirppuk-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu. A new name

Taṇṇi-muṟippuk-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Vēlaṅ-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Viḷāttik-kuḷam: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Ālaṭik-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Amaiyaṅ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Mata-vāla-ciṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Āṟumukattāṉ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mulaiththeevu

Ilaṅkai-nārāyaṇaṉ-kuḷam: Karathuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu. Ilaṅkai-nārāyaṇaṉ: personal name of a chieftain of Vanni

Ēyaṉ-kuḷam: Karaithurippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Kāyāṭik-kuḷam: Kāyāvaṭik-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Kaṭaiyaṉ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Kīccuk-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mulliththeevu

Kuṅcuk-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Kuruntūrk-kuḷam: Karathuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Maṉaṟ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Nāvaṟ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Nittikaik-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Paṭu-kāṭṭuk-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Paḻaiya-āṇṭāṉ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Paṉṟi-cuṭṭāṉ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Puḻutikkal-kuḷam: Karithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Cāmpaṉ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Cempu-tāṇṭa-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Ciṉṉak-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Uṭuppuk-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Uttaraiyaṉ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Vari-vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Kuḷa-vayal: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

* * *

Kilinochchi district:

Koṟṟāṇṭār-kuḷam: Pachchilaippalli, Kilinochchi

Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kandavalai, Kilinochchi

Kōṇaṉ-kuḷam: Kandavalai, Kilinochchi

Maṇṇaṭitta-kuḷam: Kandavalai, Kilinochchi. Maṇ+aṭitta+kuḷam

Periya-kuḷam: Kandavalai, Kilinochchi

Iraṭṭaip-paṉaik-kuḷam: Kandavalai, Kilinochchi

Campuk-kuḷam: Kandavalai, Kilinochchi

Putuk-kuḷam: Kandavalai, Kilinochchi

Āmpal-kuḷam: Karaichchi, Kilinochchi

Periya-kuḷam: Kandavalai, Kilinochchi

Akkarāyaṉ-kuḷam: Karaichchi, Kilinochchi. Akkarāyaṉ: name of a ruler

Āṉai-viḷuntāṉ-kuḷam: Karaichchi, Kilinochchi

Kanakāmpikaik-kuḷam: Karaichchi, Kilinochchi. Kaṉakāmpikai: name of the presiding deity of the temple there.

Vaṉṉērik-kuḷam: Karaichchi, Kilinochchi

Kantan-kuḷam: Karaichchi, Kilinochchi

Maṇiyaṅ-kuḷam: Karaichchi, Kilinochchi

Ūriyāṉ-kuḷam: Karaichchi, Kilinochchi

Ellaik-kal-kuḷam: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

Karik-koṭṭuk-kuḷam: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

Katira-vil-kuḷam: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

Kāvak-kuḷam: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

Moṭṭaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

Nalla-taṇṇīrk-kuḷam: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

Nakarak-kuḷam: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

Neṭuṅ-kuḷam: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

Pūk-kuḷam: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

Cempaṉ-kuḷam: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

* * *

Batticaloa district:

Maturaṅ-kēṇik-kuḷam: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa; Addalaichchenai, Amparai

Periya-kuḷam: Alaiyadivempu, Amparai

Tāmaraik-kuḷam: Pottuvil, Amparai

Mīyaṉ-kuḷam: Koralippattu, Batticaloa

Mīyan-kal-kuḷam: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

Neṭuṅ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

Pēyaṉ-kuḷam: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

Cāḷampaiyaṭik-kuḷam: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

Cōtaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa: Acōtaiyaṉ: a ruler noted in the legends of the East

Akattiyar-kuḷam: Eravur, Batticaloa

Āṇṭār-kuḷam: Eravur, Batticaloa

Īrala-kuḷam: Eravur, Batticaloa

Karaṭiyaṉ-kuḷam: Eravur, Batticaloa

Kitul-kuḷam: Eravur, Batticaloa

Puttu-veḷik-kuḷam: Eravur, Batticaloa

Camuḻaṅ-cōlaik-kuḷam: Eravur, Batticaloa

Iṟāl-kuḷam: Eravurppattu, Batticaloa: Iṟāl: 1. Prawn; 2. Īṟal: big forest (Batticaloa glossary, Kanthaiya)

Kirāṉ-kuḷam: Manmunaippattu, Batticaloa

Ollik-kuḷam: Manmunaippattu, Batticaloa

Kōyil-kuḷam: Manmunaippattu, Batticaloa

Puṉṉaik-kuḷam: Poratheevuppattu, Batticaloa

Ammaṉ-kuḷam: Poratheevuppattu, Batticaloa

Kuḷak-kōṭṭaṉ-kirāmam: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa. Kuḷakkōtṭaṉ: a legendary king associated with the construction of tanks in the East and in Vanni; the place name is a recent one

Kuḷattu-maṭu: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

Kuḷattu-vaṭṭai: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

* * *

Trincomalee district:

Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kuchchaveli, Trincomalee; Poratheevuppattu, Batticaloa

Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam-paṟṟu: a former division in Trincomalee (One Inch Sheet)

Periya-kuḷam: Kuchchaveli, Trincomalee

Paḷḷak-kuḷam: Kuchchaveli, Trincomalee

Vaṭalik-kuḷam: Kuchchaveli, Trincomalee

Iluppaik-kuḷam: Trincomalee Town and Gravets, Trincomalee

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Trincomalee Town and Gravets, Trincomalee

Āṇṭāṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee Town and Gravets, Trincomalee

Kaṟ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Trincomalee Town and Gravets, Trincomalee

Marai-eṟińcāṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee Town and Gravets, Trincomalee

Mutaliyār-kuḷam: Trincomalee Town and Gravets, Trincomalee

Puḷiyań-kuḷam: Trincomalee Town and Gravets, Trincomalee

Maṇiyaracaṉ-kuḷam: Kinniya, Trincomalee. Maṇiyaracaṉ: name of a ruler in the legends of Trincomalee

Kollaṉ-kuḷam: Kinniya, Trincomalee

Kuṭṭiyā-kuḷam: Kinniya, Trincomalee

Veḷḷāṅ-kuḷam: Kinniya, Trincomalee

Āviyā-kuḷam: Moothoor, Trincomalee

Ittik-kuḷam: Moothoor, Trincomalee

Mara-vaṭṭaik-kuḷam: Moothoor, Trincomalee

Ciṉṉak-kuḷam: Moothoor, Trincomalee

Poli-kaṇṭik-kuḷam: Sinhalicised as Puli-kanḍi-kulama: Gomarankadawela, Trincomalee. Polikaṇṭi: paddy field part

Noccik-kuḷam: Sinhalicised as Nocci-kulama: Mutalikkuḷam/ Morawewa, Trincomalee

Paṉ-kulam: Sinhalicised as Pan-kulama: Mutalikkulam/ Morawewa, Trincomalee

Pamman-kuḷac-cēṉai: Moothoor, Trincomalee

Pokkaiya-kuḷac-cēṉai: Moothoor, Trincomalee

Ullaik-kuḷac-cēṉai: Moothoor, Trincomalee

Ālaṅ-kuḷattuc-cōlai: Kuchchaveli, Trincomalee

* * *

Kuḷam from One Inch Sheets:

Delft Sheet:

Aṟumaṉ-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Uttarai-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Īccaṅ-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Tāmaraik-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Periya-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Kākkayaṉ-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Poṭṭal-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Mutaliyā-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Iṟavaṇṭaik-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Veṭṭuk-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS. The excavated pond; this was excavated in the Dutch times. Veṭṭu: (verb) to cut, dig as a well (Tamil, DED 5478)

Cilukkaraik-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Toṇṭaṉ-kuḷam: Delft, Delft OIS

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: Nayiṉā-tīvu, Delft OIS

Nari-tūkki-kuḷam: Nayiṉā-tīvu, Delft OIS

Peruṅ-kuḷam: Nayiṉā-tīvu, Delft OIS

Kirāyk-kuḷam: Nayiṉā-tīvu, Delft OIS

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Puṅkuṭu-tīvu, Delft OIS

Kauṭiyaṉ-kuḷam: Puṅkuṭu-tīvu, Delft OIS

Aṭai-kātta-kuḷam: Puṅkuṭu-tīvu, Delft OIS

Maṇṭakak-kuḷam: Puṅkuṭu-tīvu, Delft OIS

Paṇṭattaṉaik-kuḷam: Puṅkuṭu-tīvu, Delft OIS

Periya-kirāyk-kuḷam: Puṅkuṭu-tīvu, Delft OIS

Ampaik-kuḷam: Puṅkuṭu-tīvu, Delft OIS

Kikkiliyā-kuḷam: Puṅkuṭu-tīvu, Delft OIS

Tikaḻik-kuḷam: Puṅkuṭu-tīvu, Delft OIS

* * *

Jaffna Sheet:

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Aṉalai-tīvu, Jaffna OIS

Vērak-kuḷam: Kārai-tīvu, Jaffna OIS

Kiḷuvāṉaik-kuḷam: Kārai-tīvu, Jaffna OIS

Ilantaik-kuḷam: Kayts, Jaffna OIS

Karantuk-kuḷam: Kayts, Jaffna OIS

Periya-kuḷam: Kayts, Jaffna OIS

Cuḷa-kuṇṭik-kuḷam: Kayts, Jaffna OIS

Nittul-kuḷam: Kayts, Jaffna OIS

Cilinta-kuḷam: Kayts, Jaffna. Cilumpu: to flow out, gush out (Tamil, DED 2569); Cilupu: a pond (Telugu, DED 2569); Silka: river, brook (Kolami, Naikri, Gondi, DED 2569); Cilime, Cilme, Cilimbi: a small tank (Tulu, DED 2367); Cilume: a small pit, spring of water, fountain head, dried-up tank (Kannada, DED 2367)

Vaṇṇā-kuḷam: Kayts, Jaffna OIS

Nārakkā-kuḷam: Kayts, Jaffna OIS

Peruṅ-kuḷam: Kayts, Jaffna OIS

Puṉṉālaik-kuḷam: Jaffna OIS

Naḷavarāyaṉ-kuḷam: Jaffna OIS

Kaṟ-kaḻik-kuḷam: Jaffna OIS

Piṉākkaik-kuḷam: Jaffna OIS

Alukkaik-kuḷam: Jaffna OIS

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: Jaffna OIS

Cemmaṇik-kuḷam: Jaffna OIS

Paṇṭārak-kuḷam: Nallūr, Jaffna

* * *

Point Pedro Sheet:

Veruttik-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Kākkaraik-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Attoḷuk-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Kallikkaik-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Neṟ-koḻuk-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Intiral-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Ilakaṭik-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Vēlaṅka-polatti-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Mā-kanta-ciṭṭik-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Kavaṭik-kirāyk-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Muḷḷik-kirāyk-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Kūṉik-kirāyk-kuḷam: Mantuvil. Point Pedro OIS

Matalaik-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Ollik-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Tavaci-kuḷam: Koṭi-kāmam, Point Pedro OIS. Tavaci: hermit, mendicant (Tamil); Tapas: religious austerity, related to heat, pain (Sanskrit, Rig Vedic, CDIAL 5674)

Kāyāṅ-kuḷam: Viṭattal-paḻai, Point Pedro OIS

Aṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Paṟaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Ittāvil, Point Pedro OIS

Iluppaiyaṭik-kuḷam: Point Pedro OIS

Paṉṉaik-kuḷam: Nākar-kōyil, Point Pedro OIS

Campuk-kuḷam: Cempiyaṉ-paṟṟu, Point Pedro OIS

Vaṇṇāṉ-tuṟaik-kuḷam: Mukamālai, Point Pedro OIS

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Kaccāy, Point Pedro OIS

Ilantait-tiṭal-kuḷam: Varaṇi. Point Pedro OIS

Kaṭal-kirāńci-tāḻvuk-kuḷam: Varaṇi, Point Pedro OIS

Īrallik-kirāyk-kuḷam: Kaitaṭi, Point Pedro OIS

Kollaṉ-kirāyk-kuḷam: Cāvakaccēri, Point Pedro OIS

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Cāvakaccēri, Point Pedro OIS

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Kaccāy, Point Pedro OIS

Ōvālk-kuḷam: Kaccāy, Point Pedro OIS

Iluvarayiṟ-kuḷam: Caracālai, Point Pedro OIS

Peruṅ-kuḷam: Cāvakaccēri, Jaffna

* * *

Elephant Pass Sheet:

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: five places, Elephant Pass OIS

Nelliyā-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Kōyil-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Maṇal-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Irutalaik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Oṭṭaṉ-paḷḷam-kuḷam: Paḻai, Elephant Pass OIS

Tirāyk-kuḷam: Paḻai, Elephant Pass OIS

Neṭuṅ-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Periya-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Aṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Karanṭāik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Pāppāṉ-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS. Pāppāṉ: Pappāṉ-pūṇtu: Wild Chayaroot, Aldenlandia corymbosa (Tamil, MTL)

Māvilaṅkaik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Taṉip-paṉaik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Iraṭṭaip-paṉaik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Kuńcik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Ciraṭṭai-paṟiccāṉ-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Vērak-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Tāmaraik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Kaṟuppi-cetta-kuḷam/ Karai-pōṭṭa-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Paṉai-niṉṟa-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Kokkaṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS. Kokku+aṭampaṉ+kuḷam

Iṟampaik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Taccaṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS. Tacca+aṭampaṉ+kuḷam

Uppuk-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Telliyāy-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Taṉi-vaḷaik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Muḷḷiyāṉ-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Alukkaṉ-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Mallan-karaik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Eḻuvaraik-koṇṭāṉ-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Pottu-valaik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Tāvaḷaik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Teṉayaṉ-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Nāy-cetta-paḷḷam-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Kaṟukkāyk-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Piramantal-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Nel-vēlik-kuḷam: Elephant Pass OIS

Korakkaṉ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: near Parantaṉ, Elephant Pass OIS. Korakkaṉ-kaṭṭu is a cultivation field marked separately

Vavaṉik-kuḷam: near Ūriyāṉ, Elephant Pass OIS

* * *


Vaṭṭak-kirāńcik-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Taḷik-kuḷam: three places, Poonakari OIS

Nalla- taṇṇik-kuḷam: two places, Poonakari OIS

Āṉaip-pāppaṉ-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS. See Pāppaṉ-kuḷam

Kaṭaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Neṭuṅ-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Cori-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Kōvil-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Periya-tampirāy-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Ellaik-kal-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Mēlaṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS. Mēl+aṭampaṉ+kuḷam

Teḷivuk-karaik-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Kokkuṭaiyāṉ-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS. Kokku+uṭaiyāṉ+ kuḷam

Kavāk-kuḷam: two places, Poonakari OIS

Marakkāyar-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Mūlaik-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Karaiyām-piṭṭik-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Kuńcu-āṉai-viḻuntāṉ-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Kaṭaliṟańcit-tāḻvuk-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Cekkālaik-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Karumāṉ-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Aracapuram-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Nańciṭṭa-kāṭu-kuḷam: near Akkarāyaṉ-kuḷam, Poonakari OIS. Probably, related to Nańcuṇṭaṉ: poison ball plant, Balanites roxburghii; Nańcuṇṭam: a tree, Gardenia turgida; Nańcuṇṭai: a tree, the seeds of which are of narcotic content, but used in native medicine, Compound corymbed, Yellow-flowered resin seed, Pittospermum floribundum (Tamil, MTL); also note the place name, Nańcuṇṭāṉ-veḷi in Putukkuṭiyiruppu

Kaccaṟ-koṭip-paḷḷam-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Olikkaṉār-kuḷam: Poṉṉā-veḷi, Poonakari OIS

Paḻaiyil-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS

Pallavarāyaṉ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Uruttirapuram, Poonakari OIS. This place is different from Pallavarāyan-kaṭṭu in Tuṇukkāy where a bigger reservoir is found. Pallavarāyaṉ: also Pallavaraiyaṉ: title of a high official or commander, as seen in Tamil inscriptions between late 8th century CE and 13th century CE (Tamil, inscriptions; examples: Pańcavaṉ Pallavaraiyaṉ, 780 CE, SII, xiv, 17; Aṇṇaṉ Pallavarāyaṉ, 1175 CE, EI, xxii, 14); a high official or commander, either coming from the Pallava country or connected to the Pallave country; many having the title were in the service of the Cholas; Araiyaṉ: also Aracaṉ, Araicaṉ: king, soverign, prince (Tamil, DED 201, cognates in 8 Dravidian languages; DED cites Dravidian Prakrit; Rājan: chieftain, king (Sanskrit, CDIAL 10679)

* * *

Tunukkai Sheet:

Vaṉṉērik-kuḷam: Poonakari OIS. Vaṉ+nērik+kuḷam, or Vaṉ+ērik+kuḷam; Nēri, Ēri: dam

Neṭuṅ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Kōṇā-malaik-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Tēttāvaṭik-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS. Tēttā: Tēṟṟā, Tēṟu: a tree

Perum-parappuk-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Tīk-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Muruṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Tuṇukkāy, Tunukkai OIS

Paṇṭi-veṭik-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Cāḻampaṉ-kuḷam: two places, Tunukkai OIS

Aṇicciyaṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS. Aṇińcil, Aḻiṅcil: a tree

Karampaik-kuḷam: two places, Tunukkai OIS

Kucavaṉ-kuḷam: two places, Tunukkai OIS

Paṭṭaṅkaṭṭi-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Murukkaṭik-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS. Murukku+aṭik-kuḷam

Āṉai-viḻuntāṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Uppuk-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Paṟaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Nākap-paṭuvaṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Kariyālaik-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Aṇai-pōṭṭa-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Kōṭṭai-kaṭṭiṉa-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Nari-veraṭṭik-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Kotampiyā-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS.

Āṉai-cetta-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: two places, Tunukkai OIS

Kollaṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Putuk-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Koṅkaṇaṉ-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Tēvaṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Paṇṭi-veṭṭik-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Viraḷip-puḷik-kuḷam: Maṉṉiyakuḷam, Tunukkai OIS

Maṉṉiya-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Kuńcu-āṉai-viḻuntāṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Kuńcuk-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Maṇal-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Teṉṉiyaṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Cōḻiyaṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Muttaraiyaṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Āvarań-cāṭṭik-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Kaṇṭiyat-tēvaṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Āvarań-cāṭṭik-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Veḷḷāṅ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Tēvaṉ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Tekkai-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS

Otiyaṅ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS. Oti: a tree

Kīḻ-kuḷam: Tunukkai OIS. Compare it with Mēl-kuḷam/ Mēṟ-kuḷam

* * *

Iranaimadu Sheet:

Nilaik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kākkaraiyaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS. Kākkarai: Kautāri

Paṟaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Pūvaliyāṉ-vayal-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Aṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Pīk-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS. Probably, Pīlik-kuḷam; the dam of the tank is built across a stream called Marutap-pīli-āṟu

Timpilik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kaivēlik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kaṅkāṇiyā-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Cakaḷattup-pulavuk-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kuńcuk-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kollaik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Pirāmaṇaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Koṭi-tāṅkiya-kuḷam: Oṭṭucuṭṭāṉ, Iranaimadu OIS

Kaṭṭaik-kāṭu-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kākkap-paṇikkaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Cāḷampaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Veṭukku-nāṟik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Murukku-veṭṭuvāṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS. The Kuḷam in Murukku-veṭṭuvāṉ

Iyaṅkan-kuḷam: two places, Iranaimadu OIS

Maṇṇā-kaṇṭal-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Puḷiyaṭik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Paṉiccaik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Periya-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kuńcu-nāccik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Neṟ-pulavuk-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kuńcu-kōṭālik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Uṭaiyār-camaḷaṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Paṇṭārak-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Iyaṅkaṭi-veḷiyiṟ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS. Iyaṅku+aṭi+veḷi+il+kuḷam

Cēṉarāyaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Ceṭṭi-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Ampaṭṭa-marutaṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Taṭṭā-malaik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Vēṭaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kaṟ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Karampaik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Muṟippāṉ-karaik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Āṉai-viḻuntāṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kīri-cuṭṭāṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Poṟ-parappik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kantacāmi-kōyil-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Paṇikkar-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: three places, Iranaimadu OIS

Puṟ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Marutōṇṭik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Āmpal-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Katiraṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Mutaliyā-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kuruntan-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Muṟiyaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Puli-cetta-kuḷam: Kokkāvil, Iranaimadu OIS

Kāyaāṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Maṇal-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Marutaṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Karik-kuruviyāṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS. Karik-kuruvi: king crow, glossy black bird with long forked tail, Dicrurus macrocercus (Tamil, MTL, DED 1278a + 1793)

Ampalavaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Pantaṉaik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Vitāṉai-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Puli-kuttik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Vaṇṭik-kaṭṭu-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Vaṉṉi-viḷāṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Camaḷaṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Ammi-vaittāṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Vaṇṇā-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kuńci-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Yā-maritaṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Karaṭiyaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kaḷuttu-muṟittāṉ-kuḷam: Maṇavāḷam-paṭṭa-muṟippu, Iranaimadu OIS

Kāṭṭup-paruttik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Taccaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Aṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Puḻumac-cilanti-kuḷam: Ampakāmam, Iranaimadu OIS. Puḻumac-cilanti: Puli-mukac-cilanti: tiger-faced spider, Tarantula, Bycosa nidifex (Tamil, MTL); Cilanti: spider (Tamil, DED 2562)

Kumutaṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Pacimpai-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kal-pokkai-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Tiruk-kuḷam: Oṭṭucuṭṭāṉ, Iranaimadu OIS

Paḻaiya-camaḷaṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kuńcup-paruttik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Nāvik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Uḷuviyaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Kumiḻaṅ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Puttu-veṭṭuvāṉ-maṇaṟ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS. The Kuḷam in Puttu-veṭṭuvāṉ

Paṟaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Karu-velik-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS

Cempeṭutta-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS. Cempu+eṭutta+kuḷam; probably where copper was mined

Tuttaṉ-kuḷam: Iranaimadu OIS. Tutti: various plants; 1. Wrinkled leaved evening mallow, abutilon asiaticum; 2 . Country mallow, Perun-tutti; 3. Narrow wooly stipuled lotus croton, Vaṭṭat-tutti; 4 white mulberry tree, morus alba; 5. Spiked bitter cucumber

* * *


Vāveṭṭik-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Maṇaṟ-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Aṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Pūtaṉ-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Marutaṅ-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Iḷa-marutaṅ-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Kāyāvaṭik-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS. Kāyā+aṭi+kuḷam

Paṇṭik-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Kuruntaṉ-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Maḻavarāyaṉ-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Āmpal-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Āṇṭāṉ-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Karukkal-veḷik-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Iṟāl-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

Periya-puḷiyań-kuḷam: Mullaittivu OIS

* * *


Paṅki-kuḷam: Iluppaikkaṭavai, Mantai OIS

Periya-kuḷam: two places, Mantai OIS

Ciṉṉak-kuḷam: two places, Mantai OIS

Maṇṇāṅ-kaṭṭik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Nāvalaṭik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Montaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Vaṇṇā-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Iyaṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Ceṭṭi-veḷik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Karaṅ-kāmam-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kompaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kucava-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kaḷḷiyaṭic-ciṟu-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Paṭṭattu-veḷik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Paṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kōṇaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Naḷava-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Periya-cavari-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. Cavari; Xavier

Kūrāyk-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Āṇṭi-veḷik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kuńcuk-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Antaṇa-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kāttāṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kāraiyaṭik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. Kārai+aṭi+kuḷam

Kottāṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. Kottāṉ: a creeper

Oluk-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Ciṟu-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Civantaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Pālaik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Vāṇivaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Nāvalaṭik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Viḷāttik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kaṟukkāk-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Vēlak-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Karampaik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kāttāṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Viḷātti-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Paṭṭi-veḷik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Paṇikkar-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kaṅkāṇi-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kucava-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Valiya-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Muḷḷik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kāyāṅ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kuṟińcāk-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Naravik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. Probably Naṟuvilik-kuḷam

Muttiyaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kaṭṭayaṉ-perumāḷ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Velatti-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Mūppaṉ-kuḷam: Paṉaṅ-kāmam, Mantai OIS

Cempar-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Iṟamiyaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Poṭi-tuvaraṅ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kuṟi-cuṭṭāṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. See Kuṟi-cuṭṭa-kuḷam

Ummiṭiyāṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Uttiraṅ-koṇṭāṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kūmak-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Cekkaṭik-kuḷam: Panaṅkāmam, Mantai OIS

Vavunik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Pāṇṭiyaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Pūvaracaṅ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Oṭṭaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kompaṟutta-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. Kompu+aṟutta-kuḷam

Cāḷampaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kuruntaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kaṭṭuk-karaik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. The Tamil name for Giant's Tank, the largest ancient reservoir built in the North of the island

Puḷiyālaṅ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. Puḷi+āl+am+kuḷam: where tamarind and banyan are found together

Periya-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Culuttāṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Levvai-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. Levvai: Lebbe

Paṭṭāṇi-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kōṭṭaik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Akattik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Iṟumaṉ-veḷi Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. Iṟumaṉ: probably, Viṟumaṉ: a folk deity, from Viṟuma-vairavar < Piruma-vairavar < Brahma-bhairava: the form of Siva that took away the top head of Brahma

Cēttuk-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Paṟaiya-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Icaṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kuṟińcāk-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Cāḷampaik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Māṉip-pulluk-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kāttāṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Pālaiyaṭik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Narik-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kollaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Periya-nāval-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Kalaiyap-perumāḷ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Vaṇṇā-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Pāppāṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Mariyā-putuk-kuḷam: Mantai OIS. Mariyā: Mary

Vaiyattāṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Paṟaṅki-ciṟu-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Periya-kaṅkan-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

Ciṉṉa-kaṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Mantai OIS

* * *

Murunkan Sheet:

Vańciyaṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Kollaṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Vaṇṇā-kuḷam: two places Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Paṇikkar-ciṟu-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Piṭāri-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Pūvaracaṅ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Ittik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Noccik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Ciṉṉa-noccik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Maṇal-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Peruṅ-kaṭṭuc-ciṟu-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Karuṅkālik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Vaṭṭavāṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Cōṉaka-neṭuṅ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Piccai-vāṇipaṉ-neṭuṅ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Ālaṭik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Ūmattai-vempuk-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Vakai-kaṭṭiṉa-oluk-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Periya-kalluk-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Kākkaraṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Oṭṭara-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Neṭuṅ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Amicci-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Uppaṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Koṅka-rāyaṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Palakai-viḻunta-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Karampaik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Nellik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Nel-vēlik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Kaṟukkā-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Paṇikka-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Muruṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Pettāṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Mūkkaṟaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Cāmpāṉ-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Varakuc-cēṉaik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Piramiya-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS. Pirami: a prostrate herb, Herpestis monniera (Tamil, MTL)

Kirittō-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS. Kirittō: Jesus Christ

Periya-paṭṭi-veḷik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Piḷḷai-noccik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Paṭṭi-veḷik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Aṟukam-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Karaiyā-kalluk-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Cāḷampaik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Veḷḷaiyar-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Kāyāṅ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Pirāmaṇālaṅ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS. Pirāmaṇa+ālaṅ+kuḷam

Paṟaiyanālaṅkuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS. Paṟaiyaṉ+ālaṅ+kuḷam

Paravip-pāńcāṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Kuturu-viṭṭāṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Marakkāyar-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Tampaṉaik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Ceṭṭi-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Viḷāttik-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Cōṉaka-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Vaikāḷit-tēvan-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Vairava-tēvar-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Karampaṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Kamak-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Virāy-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

Nākaṉ-kuḷam: Muruṅkaṉ OIS

* * *

Vavuniya Sheet:

Vēḷḷaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Māvilaṅkaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Naṟuvilik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Āvaraṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Maṅkait-tuvaraṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Ilantaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: found in several places, Vavuniya OIS

Nellik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Karuṅkālik-kuḷam: found in several places, Vavuniya OIS

Kōyil-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Pūcāriyār-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kuńcuk-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Tekkilāṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Ittik-kuḷam: two places, Vavuniya OIS

Ciṉṉa-āvaracaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Periya-aracaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kākkayaṉ-kuḷam: two places, Vavuniya OIS

Uvark-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kal-vēlik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Karaiyā-alampaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Mutaliyā-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Marutaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Vēlaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Mēl-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Paṇikkar-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Pāvaṭṭaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS. Pāvaṭṭai: 1. a plant, Pavetta indica; 2. common bottle flower, Webara corymbosa; 3. a small tree, Malabar nut, Āṭā-tōṭai, Justicia adhatoda (Tamil, MTL, DED 4103); Pāvaṭṭā: Āḍātōḍā (Sinhala, Sorata); Āṭā-tōṭai: because it is eaten only by goats (Āṭu: goat; Tōṭu: collection, assemblage, bunch, leaf, petal; Naṟṟiṇai 206: 2; Tamil DED 5152 + DED 3480)

Pirappaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Paracaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kaḷḷik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Aracaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Nālu-muṟippuk-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Tuvaraṅ-kuḷam: Ma-maṭu, Vavuniya OIS

Vayiravar-ciṉṉakkuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Vaṭa-kāṭu Puḷiyaṅkuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Naḷavan Kal-vīraṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS. See Kal-vīraṉ-kuḷam

Muṭavaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Iṟampai-veṭṭik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Oṭṭamaṭaiccik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS. Oṭṭam+aṭaicca+kuḷam

Taṇakkaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS. Taṇakku: whirling nut, Gyrocarpus jacquini (Tamil, DED 3046)

Kāṭṭup-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Iyaṅkaṉ-kuḷam: two places, Vavuniya OIS

Mutaliyā-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Aṭappaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kal-vīraṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS. Kal-vīrai: a variety of Vīrai tree

Tekkilaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Puḷi-māṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kākal-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Cāḷampaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Nēriya-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Periya-noccik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Vēṭap-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Mayil-muṭṭai-iṭṭa-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Viṭattal-kāṭṭuc-ciṉṉak-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Neḷuk-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: two places, Vavuniya OIS

Payirik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Ciṉṉa-iruvāṭcik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS. Iruvāṭci, Iruvāycci: Tasman jasmine, Jasminum sambacflore-manoraepleno (Tamil, MTL); from the bifurcation seen in the leaves, Iru+vāy (Tamil, DED 474 + 5352)

Kūḻāṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kaṇṭaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kuṟńcāk-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Taṭṭāṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Ciṉṉak-koṅkara-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Āmpal-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Paṭṭi-veḷik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Taḷik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Maṇiyar-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Iṟamiyaṉ Kaṟ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Noccik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kāra-veṭṭiyāṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kurukkaḷ-kuṟicuṭṭa-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS. See Kuṟicuṭṭa-kuḷam

Civalaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Cittaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Iṟampaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Aracaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kanta-uṭayār Pūvaracaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Vēlappar Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kuńcuk-kuḷam: two places, Vavuniya OIS

Cōṉaka Cāḷampaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Iḷa-marutaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Tavaci-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Ēḻu-muṟippuk-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Pattirakāḷi-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS. Pattira-kāli: a fork of the deity, Kāḷi; Bhadra: fortunate, delightful (Sanskrit, Rig Vedic, CDIAL 9377)

Iluppaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Mēṟ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Payarik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Makiḻaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Puḷi-taṟitta-puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kuṟi-cuṭṭa-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Āyil-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Pirāmaṇaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Veḷik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Taccaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Neṟ-pulluk-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Vaikāḷi-kūḻaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kūḻaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Tampaṉaik-kuḷam: two places, Vavuniya OIS. Tampaṉai: a tree

Neḷuk-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Paṇṭāri-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Tiruk-kōvil Nāvaṟ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Pińcu-viḷāttik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Aḻakar-camaḷaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Mahā-iṟampaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Pēyāṭi-kūḻaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Nālu-muṟippuk-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Katiraṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kāyāṇ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Nāmpaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Marutaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Pūtar-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Vēlappar-marutaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Camaḷaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Tuvaraṅ-kuḷam: Ōmantai, Vavuniya OIS

Aliyaṉ-cāynta-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Katira-mara-ciṉṉak-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Pattiṉiyār-marutaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Karum-paṉiccaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS. Karum-paṉiccai: a variety of Paṉiccai tree

Tēva-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Karu-vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Maṟavaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Mullaik-kuḷam: near Ammi-vaittāṉ, Vavuniya OIS

Kal-vēlik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Tavaciyā-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Kaṭṭaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Taraṇik-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Tekkilāṉ-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

Pāvaṭṭaṉ-kuḷam: near Ōmantai, Vavuniya OIS

Muṟiyak-kuḷam: Vavuniya OIS

* * *

Kokkilai Sheet:

Kāyāṭik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Villi-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kocci-paṉiccaik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kuńcuk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Pottuk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kollaṉ-veḷik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Paṟaiyaṉ-veḷik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kūmaṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Veṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Oṭṭaṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Ōṭāvik-kuḷam: near Pulmōṭṭai, Kokkilai OIS

Camaḷaṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Āṇṭāṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Vaṉṉiyar-veḷik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kucak-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Noccik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Tōraṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Iṟamaṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Periya-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kaṟuttār-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Taṉik-kalluk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Māṉāvārik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Karu-vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Āyilaṭik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Nittukkai-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Vēlaṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Paḻaiya-āṇṭāṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Paṇṭi-cuṭṭāṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Pūtaṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Uṭaṅkaik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Karai-vāykkāl-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Pattaṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kalakalappāṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS. Kalakalappāṉ: literally meaning, the one that makes rattling sound; probably the same as Kilukiluppai: 1. Species of rattewort, the seeds of which rattle in ripe pods, Crotalaria pulcherrima; 2. Laburnum-leaved rattlewort, Crotalaria laburnifolia; 3. A copiously branched shrub with quadrangular stems, Crotalaria verrucosa (Tamil, MTL)

Vīraṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Ciṉṉak-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Vampoṭukai-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS. Vambaṭu: a kind of brinjal, Solanum melongena (Sinhala, Clough)

Paṇikkan-vayal-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Vaṇṇātti-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Periya-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Paṉiccaṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Ciṉṉa-veḷik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Āna-olanda-kulam: near Gōmaraṅkaḍavala, Kokkilai OIS. From Āṉai-viḻuntāṉ-kuḷam

Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Vaṭṭikā-parappuk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kal-iluppaik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Vēlaṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Camaḷaṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kusak-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kalluk-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Vaṉṉiyar-veḷik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Paṇiya-veḷik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kāyāṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Periya-tiṭal-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Putu-vayal-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Karai-vayal-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS. Karai: edge in this context

Veṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Nāvaṟ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Kuńcuk-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Amaiyaṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Puḻutik-kal-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Puḷukkaṇitta-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Cempaṉ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Natta-veḷik-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

Amari-vayal-kuḷam: Kokkilai OIS

* * *

Padaviya Sheet:

Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam-paṟṟu: a former division, Padaviya OIC

Kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Mayilaṅ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Viḷāṅ-kuḷam: two places, Padaviya OIC

Kaṟ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Ilantaik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Vaṇṇāṉ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Vīraṉ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Viḷāttik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Nāvaṟ-kaṉik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Malaiyaṭik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Mum-malaik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Vaṭalik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Iluppaik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Poykaik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Tuvaraṅ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Māvak-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Kaḷa-veṭṭuk-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC. Kaḷa-veṭṭai: threshing floor, usually a high ground area reserved for this pupose in a tract of paddy fields

Ūṟṟuk-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Ulakkuk-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC. Ulu: forest

Kāyāṅ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Elaiyaṉ-kiḷiyaṉ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Periya-mutaliyā-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Periya-marakkāyar-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Kokku-viḷāṅ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Paṉiccaṅ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Paṉaṅkaṭṭik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Cavari-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Ceṭṭi-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Periya-cempi-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Marukkāraṅ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Nāvaṟ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Periya-kalmaṭuk-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Ciṉṉa-marakkāyar-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Kuruppuṭṭik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Kiḷavi-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Piḷḷaiyā-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Marakkāyar-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Veṭi-vacca-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Periya-Aṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Noccik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Paṟaiyaṉ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Paṉ-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Mutalik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC. Mutali: Nephelium longanum (Eezham Tamil)

Ellaik-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

Koṭṭuk-kuḷam: Padaviya OIC

* * *

Horowupotana Sheet:

Cēṉai-veḷik-kuḷam: Horawupotana OIS

Veṇṭaracṉ-kuḷam: Horawupotana OIS. Veṇṭaracaṉ: a king noted in the legends of Trincomalee

Kuṟuńcā-kuḷam: Horawupotana OIS

* * *

Trincomalee Sheet:

Ammaṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Pariyāri-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS. Pariyāri: physician, barber (Eezham Tamil); Parikāri: physician (Tamil, inscription, 1191 CE, SII, xvii, 595); Parihāra: attention, care (Pali, CDIAL 7901)

Āṇṭāṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Kōvilāṟu-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Taṭṭak-kal-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Makamatu-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Paṭṭiyāṉ-ūṟṟuk-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Kayavantaṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Aṭappaṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Vēppaṅ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Mallu-malaik-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Aṇaikkal-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS. Aṇaikkal: stone dam

Ciṉṉa-nayintai-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Iḷa-kantai-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Periya-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Kaṭṭaik-kāṭṭuk-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Ciṟu-vaḷḷiyammai-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Periya-ālaṅ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Pokkar-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Campuk-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Pulavaṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Toṭuvāṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Vaṭuva-maṅkai-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Kokka-tīvuk-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Cemattaṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Periya-nayintai-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Kucavaṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Cempanāyaṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Ittik-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Nari-ilantaik-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Mara-veṭṭaik-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Ullaik-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Periya-veḷik-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Kaṅku-vēlik-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Mēṉ-kāmam-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Kirāṉ-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

Nīlap-paḻaik-kuḷam: Trincomalee OIS

* * *

Kathiraveli Sheet:

Kal-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Nāvakaṉ-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Kāttāṉ-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Kollaṉ-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Kuṟińcāṅ-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Paṉiccaṅ-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Kirāṉ-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Tāmaraik-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Oṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Otti-veḷik-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Ciṉṉak-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Periya-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Maṇal-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Cōḻaṉ-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Uvarcaṉ-veṭṭaik-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Nalivu-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Maturaṅ-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Nāvaṟ-kāṭṭuk-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Malai-veḷik-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Ciṉṉak-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Paṅkurānaik-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Canteli-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Uṇu-kāmam-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

Paḷḷik-kuḷam: Kathiraveli OIS

* * *

Vakaneri Sheet:

Penilaṉ-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS. Penela: Soap-berry plant, Sapindus emarginatus (Sinhala, Clough); Pūvanti: soap nut (Tamil, DED 4370)

Āṉai-cuṭṭa-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Kirimicci-ōṭaik-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS. Kirimicci: a tree

Kol-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Puḷiyaṭi-marutaṅ-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Mutu-kallu-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS. The place has a rock and archaeological ruins

Kaṅkāṇa-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Vatiri-Muṉ-mārik-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Putuk-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Periya-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Pirappaṭik-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Nelli-veṭṭiṉa-kuḷam: Aḻińcilpottāṉai, Vakaneri OIS

Karampai-veḷik-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Putu-veḷik-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Vallaṉ-vala-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Ālaṅ-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Uṇa-vala-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Karuṅ-kāṭu-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Īccaṅ-kāṭu-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Iḷukohi-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Mūva-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Ciṟikēta-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Ciṅkara-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Kōrai-veḷik-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Mā-vaṭṭuvāṉ-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Ampu-villuk-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Koṭṭuk-kiṇaṟu-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Īccaṅ-kāṭṭuk-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Koḷahanā-veḷik-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Kal-malaik-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Ampalaṉ-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Kirimeṭṭiyā-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Vēlaṅ-kātṭuk-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Viṭattal-kāṭṭuk-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Pellaṉ-vala-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Mīyaṉ-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Cīvali-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

Kumpuṟu-tīvuk-kuḷam: Vakaneri OIS

* * *

Batticaloa Sheet:

Perumā-veḷik-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Putu-veḷik-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Paḻaiya-veḷik-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Tāmaraik-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Cēṉai-veḷik-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Paṉ-kuṭā-veḷik-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Koṭṭuk-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Kōviṟ-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Iṭaik-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Kaṭukkāy-muṉaik-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Paṭaiyāṇṭa-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Paḻaṅ-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Kuńcil-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Periya-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Kirāḷaiyār-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Uṉṉiccaik-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

Kal-pottāṉaik-kuḷam: Batticaloa OIS

* * *

Rukam Sheet:

Cotayaṉ-kuḷam: Rukam OIS

Irala-kuḷam: Rukam OIS

Taravaik-kuḷam: Rukam OIS

Mīyaṉ-kalluk-kuḷam: Rukam OIS

Kāyāṅ-kuḷam: Rukam OIS

Tīvuk-kuḷam: Rukam OIS

* * *

Kalmuṉai Sheet:

Ammaṉ-kōyil-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Ciṉṉa-vaṭṭik-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Periya-vaṭṭik-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Kiṇattaṭi-vaṭṭik-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Paḻukāmam-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Vaṭṭik-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Patta-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Vaṭattāṉ-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Periya-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Muṉ-mārik-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Koṭai-mēṭu-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Āḻvāṉ-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Nocci-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Periya-kuḷam: two places, Kalmuṉai OIS

Oṭṭaṉ-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Māvaṭik-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Karayaṭik-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Vitāṉai-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Kuṟukkuk-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Karayā-veḷik-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Ciṉṉak-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Kāraiyaṭik-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Puḷiyaṅ-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Karaccai-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS. Karaccai: Karaicci

Tivulānaik-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS

Nāviyaṉ-kuḷam: Kalmuṉai OIS. Nāviyaṉ_ probably Nāvitaṉ

* * *

Tirukkovil Sheet:

Periya-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Poṉṉam-veḷik-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Āvaraṇak-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Vammiyaṭik-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Kōraik-kaḷappuk-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Ammāḷ-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Vaṭṭik-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Kōraik-kaḷappuk-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Karuṅkoṭit-tīvuk-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Mattalak-kaṭṭuk-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Vaṅkāmattuk-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

Malaiyaṭik-kuḷam: Tiruokovil OIS

* * *

Pottuvil Sheet:

Muṉ-mārik-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Ālaṭik-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Tukkella-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Maṭattup-puṭṭik-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Roṭṭa-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Ciriyalē-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Marattaṭik-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Cemmaṇik-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Mentōḍaik-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Tāmaraik-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Paṭṭi-veḷik-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Cērōlaik-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

Kirān-kōvaik-kuḷam: Pottuvil OIS

* * *

Panama Sheet:

Ṟūkam-veḷik-kuḷam: Panama OIS

* * *

Kuderamalai Sheet:

Pūk-kuḷam: Kuderamalai OIS

Ilavaṅ-kuḷam: Kuderamalai OIS

* * *

Kalpitti Sheet:

Cambuk-kuḷam: Etalai, Kalpitti OIS

* * *

Puttaḷam Sheet:

Tāmaraik-kuḷam: Puttalam OIS

Nāpataṉ-kuḷam: Puttalam OIS

Pottuk-kuḷam: Puttalam OIS

Pattaimēṉik-kuḷam: Puttalam OIS. Pattaimēṉi: probably the same as Kuppai-mēṉi: Acalypha indica (Tamil, DED 1737)

Kokkiccāṉ-kuḷam: Mahakumbukkadawala, Puttalam OIS

* * *

Kuḷam: other sources

Kuḷap-piṭṭi: Kokkuvil, Jaffna

Uṭumpaṉ-kuḷam: Thirukkoyil, Amparai (TN, 13. 08.13). Uṭumpu: iguana, Varanus bengalensis (Tamil, DED 592)

Kontakkāran-kuḷam: Vavuniya (HAM records). Kontakkāran: palanquin bearer; from Kuntam

* * *

An example of a small ku'lam, showing the catchment area, tank, bund and the cultivation fields. Ilamaruthangku'lam in Vavuniyaa district. [Satellite image courtesy: Google Earth]

* * *

Revised: Friday, 07 April 2017, 21:00
Revised: Wednesday, 22 October 2014, 20:16

First published: Saturday, 30 June 2007, 01:00

Previous columns:


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