Know the Etymology: 156
Place Name of the Day: Saturday, 18 March 2017

Mal-vatta, Nāram-mala, Kot-malē, Mūṇa-mal-pē, Mallā-gama

மல்வத்த, நாரம்மல, கொத்மலே, மூணமல்பே, மல்லாக₃ம
Mal-vatta, Nāram-mala, Kot-malē, Mūṇa-mal-pē, Mallā-gama


The place/ grove/ residential place in the hill; or the flower garden

The hill of mandarin orange trees

The spire-like hill; or the hill having a spire-like peak

The grove of Mimusops elengi flower-trees

The champion's village

Mal1 also Mala: mountain, hill, "Parvataya" (Sinhala, Sorata); Malai: mountain, hill (Tamil, DED 4742); also, hillock, cliff, mound, raised land or high ground of a place (Eezham Tamil place names); Mala: mountain, raised land, hill-land, (Malayalam, DED 4742); mountain (Telugu, DED 4742); Mal: the mountains of Nilgiris (Toda, DED 4742); Male: mountain, forest, Kannada, DED 4742); thick jungle land (Kodagu, DED 4742); forest, hill overgrown with forest (Tulu, DED 4742); Māle: hill (Kolami, DED 4742); cognates in 12 Dravidian languages including Brahui of Pakistan (DED 4742); Malaya: name of the mountain range of the Western Ghats in South India (Sanskrit, Prakrit, CDIAL 9902); Malayāḷam, Malabār (Sinhala, Clough); the etymology of Malayāḷam (language and country), Malāyā (Malaysia) and Malay (language and ethnicity) are related to the Dravidian term meaning hill or mountain; Mal, Mallal: strength, fertility, richness (Tamil, DED 4729); Malar: (verb) to abound, become full (Tamil, DED 4729); Mali: (verb) to abound, become large, swell, spread, expand (Tamil, DED 4729). See column 19
Mal2 also Mala, Malī: flower, "Puṣpaya" (Sinhala, Sorata); Mal-vatta, Mal-vatu: flower garden. "Puṣpōdyānaya" (Sinhala, Clough, Sorata); Malar: (verb) to open as a flower, bloom, be expanded, extended or spread, to cause to flower; (noun) full-blown flower, blossom (Tamil, DED 4739, cognates in 5 Dravidian languages); (verb) to abound, become full (Tamil, DED 4729); Mal: fertility, richness, strength (Tamil, DED 4729); Mallal: fertility, richness, elegance, brilliance, beauty (Tamil, DED 4729); Mālai: garland (Tamil, DED 4827); Malai: (verb) to wear, put on as a garland (Tamil, DED 4827); Mālā: garland (Sanskrit, etymology traced to Dravidian, CDIAL 10092)
Mal3 also Mala: forester, aborigine hunters, "Vanapaṅktiya, Vẹddā" (Sinhala, Sorata, Clough); net or noose, net to catch birds; "Pāśaya, Puḍuva, Mala-puḍuva" (Sinhala, Clough, Sorata); boxer, wrestler, "Mallayā" (Sinhala, Sorata); Mali: aborigine hunter, "Vẹddā" (Sinhala, Sorata); Mal, Mallal: strength (Tamil, DED 4729); Malai: (verb) to oppose, fight against, wrangle (Tamil, DED 4741); Mal, Mallam: wrestling, boxing (Tamil, DED 4730); Mallaṉ: wrestler, great, famous man (Tamil, DED 4730); wrestler, boxer, strong, athletic (Malayalam, DED 4730); Mala, Malu: terms coming in some of the personal names in the Brahmi inscriptions of the island (IC, 202, 318, 345, 1148, 1183); Malu-gama: a place name noticed in the Brahmi inscriptions of the island, may be connected to Mal in one of its meanings (IC, 406); on the forester shade of meaning for Mal in Sinhala, note Male meaning a hill and a forest in Kannada, Kodagu and Tulu (DED 4742)
Mal4 also, Mala, Malli: younger brother, "Bāla sahōdarayā" (Sinhala, Sorata); Maḷa: a term found in the Brahmi inscriptions of the island, used in a sense to mean a younger person or heir (IC, 58, 674, 937, 187); Maḻa: youth (Tamil, DED 4747); Maḻavan: young man, warrior (Tamil, DED 4747); Maḷaka: young cow or buffalo fit for breeding (Kannada, DED 4747)
Kot spire at the top of a building or a stupa (Sinhala, Clough, Sorata); Kuttuk-kal: stone or brick laid upright on edge (Tamil, DED 1720); Kutu-kal, Koto-kal: memorial menhir (Gondi, DED 1720); Kuttu: (verb) to plant, set, fix in the ground, set on edge as bricks in arching or terracing (Tamil, DED 1720); Kot-vilakkuva: standing brass lamp that has a spire-like top (Sinhala, Clough, Sorata); Kuttu-viḷakku: the same lamp said above (Tamil, DED 1720 + DED 5496a); Kottaḷam: Kot-taḷam: defensive erection on the top of a rampart in a fort (Tamil, MTL)
Mūṇamal also Mūna-mal-gasa, Muhuna-gas, Muhuḷu-mal, Muhuḷu, Muhulu, Makula: the tree Mimusops elangi known for its tiny fragrant flowers (Sinhala, Sorata, Clough); Muguḷe: Mimusops elengi (Kannada, DED 4619); Makiḻ: Mimusops elengi (Tamil, DED 4619); Makiḻ > Makula > Muhuḷu > Muhuna > Mūṇa/ Mūna (note the Ḻ/ Ḷ/ L/ Ṇ/ N; K/ H; A/ U and I/ U changes); the flower name seems to be related to, Makula, Mukula, Muhuḷu, Muhulu: bud, opening bud, "Mal-kẹkuḷa" (Sinhala, Sorata, Clough); Mukiḻ: (verb) to appear in the form of a bud, to put forth buds (Tamil, DED 4893); Mukai: (verb) to bud (Tamil, DED 4893); Mukiḻam: flower bud about to bloom (Tamil, DED 4893); Mokkuḷ: flower-bud (Tamil, DED 4893); Muguḷ, Muguḷu: bud, opening bud (Kannada, DED 4893, cognates in 12 Dravidian languages); Mukula, Makula, Bakula: bud (Sanskrit, etymology traced to Tamil/ Dravidian, CDIAL 10146); Bakula, Vakula, Makula, Makura: the tree and flower of Mimusops elengi (Sanskrit, non-IA origin noted, CDIAL 9116, note the M/ B/ V change and the Ḻ/ L/ R change); the tiny flower of Mimusops elengi is like a bud about to open.
Nāram = Nāraň: mandarin orange (Sinhala, Clough, Sorata); Nāram, Nārattai: orange (Tamil, DED 3653); Nāram: lemon plant (Tiyya dialect of Malayalam, DED 3653); Nāraňga: orange tree (Sanskrit, Pali, CDIAL 7073). See column 231.
grove, tree (Sinhala, Clough); Pā: tree in general (Sinhala, Clough); forest, grove, "Vanaya" (Sinhala, Sorata). See column 193
Vatta place, grove, garden, residential place, (Sinhala, Sorata). See column 61
Mallā of Malla, or of Mal. See box on Mal 3 and column 003
Gama village. See column 36

The word Mal has different meanings in Sinhala.

Mal meaning a hill or mountain, and meaning a flower or the tree/ shrub/ plant of that flower, are the common usages noticed in Sinhala place names.

Mala, Malē, Māl, Māla, Mālē, Malan, Malāna, Malal, Malla, Mali, Māli etc., are forms of Mal noticed in the place names (see related place names).

Other than meaning hill or flower, Mal also means a forester or an aborigine hunter, a wrestler, champion, younger brother etc., and some place names could be interpreted through those meanings.

Even in place names in which Mal means a hill or flower, sometimes it is difficult to specify the meaning. For instance, Rat-mal could mean a red-hill as well as Ixora coccinea.

See the boxes above and related place names below.

* * *

In meaning a hill or mountain, Mal, Mala and Malē in Sinhala correspond to Malai in Tamil/ Dravidian, meaning the same (DED 4742). Malaya in Sanskrit is a specific reference to the Western Ghats in South India and obviously the term is not of Indo-Aryan origin. The etymology seems to be related to Mal in Dravidian meaning strength and fertility, and Mali as verb meaning to become large, swell, spread and expand. See box on Mal 1.

Mal meaning a flower in Sinhala is a cognate of Malar meaning the same in Tamil/ Dravidian (DED 4739). Malar, which is also a verb in Tamil, means to open as a flower. Also note Mal meaning fertility, Mallal meaning fertility and beauty and Mali meaning to expand in Tamil. See box on Mal 2 and compare it with Mal 1.

Mal meaning a forester, aborigine hunter, hunter's net, wrestler and champion in Sinhala, are perhaps related to one another. Compare them with Mal meaning strength and fertility in Tamil; Male meaning hill and forest in Kannada, Kodagu and Tulu; Malai as verb meaning to wrangle in Tamil, and Mallayā and Mallaṉ meaning the same in Sinhala and Tamil. Compare the boxes on Mal 1, 2, and 3.

Mal meaning a younger brother in Sinhala may also be connected to the other said meanings of Mal in Sinhala, if the strength and fertility connotations are taken into account. Note Maḻa in old Tamil/ Dravidian meaning a youth, Maḻavaṉ meaning a young man and a warrior, and Maḷaka in Kannada meaning a young cow or buffalo fit for breeding (DED 4747). See box on Mal 4.

Many Mal-related usages are found in the Brahmi inscriptions of the island. They seem to be connected to the meanings discussed above and need a fresh study. One specific case is the place name Malu-gama (or Maḷa-gama, if the Lu is read as Ḷa) noticed in inscription number 406 (IC, Vol I).

* * *

Mūṇa-mal, meaning the flower and tree, Mimusops elangi in Sinhala, has many linguistically interesting variations within Sinhala itself for the word Mūṇa (see box).

The variations would show that Mūṇa in this context is not connected to its common meaning in Sinhala, i.e., face, but is related to an attribute of the flower.

The tree is known for its fragrant flowers that look like tiny buds about to open. In Sinhala, most of the Mūṇa-word variations also mean a bud or an opening bud.

See box for the Mūṇa-variations in the meaning of bud and in the meaning of Mimusops elengi, getting connected to the verbs and nouns in Dravidian.

See box on Kot, for the word meaning a spire in Sinhala corresponding to the verb and noun Kuttu in Tamil/ Dravidian.

On the terms, Vatta, Nāram, Pē and gama, see relevant columns noted in the boxes

* * *

Mal-vatta comes as a place name in Dehiwala division, Colombo district; Attanagalla division, Gampaha district; Kalutara division, Kalutara district; Kandy Four Gravets division, Kandy district; Matale division, Matale district; Godakawela division, Ratnapura district and in Yatiyanthota division, Kegalle district.

Nāram-mala is divisional headquarters of its own division in Kurunegala district.

Kot-malē is divisional headquarters of its own division in Nuwara Eliya district. There is another Kot-malē in Uhana division of Ampara district.

Mūṇa-mal-pē is in Welipitiya division of Matara district.

Mallā-gama is a place in Walapane division of Nuwara Eliya district.

* * *

Some related place names:


Mal-gama: Kolonnawa, Colombo

Mal-pura: Kolonnawa, Colombo

Raja-mal-vatta: Kaduwela, Colombo

Mal-leḥẹva: Mirigama, Gampaha; Bibile, Moneragala. Lẹhẹba: ticket, bushy place, jungle

Mal-vāna: Dompe, Gampaha; Wariyapola, Kurunegala. Mala+āna, Malavāna, Malvāna; Āna: place, forest (Sorata); or Vana > Vāna

Mal-vatu-hiri-piṭiya: Mahara, Gampaha

Mal-vāna-hinna: Akurana, Kandy

Mal-gaman-deṇiya: Akurana, Kandy

Siri-mal-vatta: Kundasale, Kandy

Mal-pāna: Kundasale, Kandy. Pana: place

Mal-pānava: Rasnayakapura, Kurunegala

Mal-gammana: Yatunuwara, Kandy; Weligamuwa, Matale

Mal-vatta-gama: GI Korale, Kandy

Kot-mal-gama: Kotmale, Nuwara Eliya

Mal-landa: Kothmale, Nuwara Eliya

Mal-hệwa: Kothmale, Nuwara Eliya

Mal-deṇiya: Kothmale, Nuwara Eliya; Alawwa, Kurunegala

Mal-ulla: Hunguranketha, Nuwara Eliya

Bōdhi-mal-kaḍa: Hanguranketha, Nuwara Eliya

Mal-sarā-nuvara: Hanguranketha, Nuwara Eliya

Mal-galla: Thawalama, Galle

Mal-hatāva: Thawalama, Galle. Hatāva: Atāva

Hiriya-mal-kuṁbura: Yakkala-mulla, Galle

Haru-mal-goḍa: Habaraduwa, Galle

Usa-mala-goḍa: Kotapola, Matara

Mal-vatu-goḍa: Kirinda-Puhulwella, Matara

Mal-pettāva: Ambalantota, Hambantota. Peta: range, series, line

Mal-hēvāge-ayina: Weeraketiya, Hambantota. Hēvā: sēvā: service; Hēvā: soldier, service person, "Sēvāyā" (Sorata); ayina: neighbourhood

Aṁba-mal-talāva: Ampara, Ampara

Mal-asna: Polpithigama, Kurunegala. Asna: neighbouhood

Tala-mal-gama: Polpithigama, Kurunegala

Mal-vānē-gedara: Panduwasnuwara West, Kurunegala

Mal-kaḍuvāva: Kurunegala, Kurunegala

Mal-gamuva: Pannala, Kurunegala

Rat-mal-agāra: Madampe, Puttalam

Sańda-mal-eḷiya: Mahawilachchiya, Anuradhapura

Sańda-mal-gama: Rambewa, Anuradhapura

Mal-deni-pura: Kekirawa, Anuradhapura

Demalussa: De-mal-ussa? Maspotha, Kurunegala

Mal-lińda: Welikanda, Polonnaruwa

Mal-deniya: Dimbulagala, Polonnaruwa

Ẹtu-mal-piṭiya: Thamankaduwa, Polonnaruwa

Mal-maḍuva: Warakapola, Kegalle

Nil-mal-goda: Kegalle, Kegalle

Siri-mal-goḍa: Badulla, Badulla

Mal-vattē-gama: Uva Paranagama, Badulla

Taṇa-mal-vila: Thanamalvila, Moneragala

Mal-vala: Ratnapura, Ratnapura

Mal-pota: Welimada, Badulla

Mā-mal-gaha: Imbulpe, Ratnapura

Mal-mī-kanda: Opanayake, Ratnapura.

Ō-mal-pē: Oya+mal-pē? Or Ava+mal+pē?: Kolonna, ratnapura

Tis-mal-pola: Rambukkana, Kegalle

* * *

Mal: (flower, tree recognized from its flower)

Rat-mal-deṇiya: Kesbewa, Colombo

Idda-mal-deṇiya: Dompe, Gampaha

Rat-mal-goḍa: Ingiriya, Kalutara; Polgahawela, Kurunegala

Nā-mal-tẹnna: Thumpane, Kandy

Mūṇa-mal-pelessa: Udadumbara, Kandy

Mūṇa-mal-deṇiya: Panduwasnuwara West, Kurunegala

Iṁbul-mal-gama: Yaṭinuwara, Kandy

Rat-mal-kaḍuva: Udapalatha, Kandy

Ela-mal-pota: Galewela, Matale

Ela-mal-deniya: Pitabeddara, Matara; Warakapola, Kegalle

Rat-mal-gaha-Ẹḷa: Dambulla, Matale

Ẹhẹla-mal-pē: Hanguranketha, Nuwara Eliya

Rat-mal-vala: Angunakolapelessa, Hambantota

Ruk-mal-piṭiya: Katuwana, Hambantota: Ruk-mal: the flower of Ruk tree; "Ruk gasehi mala" (Sorata); Ruk: 1. Tree, "Vṛkṣaya"; 2. A kind of big tree; " Enam mahagasjātiya" (Puvańgu, Ruk yanu devagayaki; Sorata); 3. Ruk- gasa: a tree peculiar to the island, it produces a very fragrant flower from its trunk, Myristica horsfieldia or Horsfieldia odorata (Sinhala, Clough)

Demaṭa-mal-pẹlẹssa: Uhana, Ampara

Demaṭa-mal-gama: Mahawilachchiya, Anuradhapura

Nā-mal-oya: Ampara, Ampara; Madulla, Moneragala

Nā-mal-vatta: Morawewa, Trincomalee

Mūṇa-mal-gas-vẹva: Karuwalagaswewa, Puttalam

Rat-mal-yāya: Puttalam, Puttalam

Rat-mal-gas-vẹva: Mahakumbukkadawala, Puttalam

Vaha-mal-gollệva: Rambewa, Anuradhapura

Mī-mal-vẹva: Rambewa, Anuradhapura

Rat-mal-gaha-vẹva: Kahatagasdigiliya, Anuradhapura

Nā-mal-vẹva: Mihinthale, Anuradhapura

Vana-mal-uyana: Thirappane, Anuradhapura

Nā-mal-gamuva: Galnewa, Anuradhapura

Mal-bali-gala: Galnewa, Anuradhapura

Mal-vila: Welikanda, Polonnaruwa

Rat-mal-tẹnna: Dimbulagala, Polonnaruwa

Idda-mal-goḍa: Eheliyagoda, Ratnapura

Rat-mala-vinna: Imbulpe, Ratnapura

Ela-mal-pē: Weligepola, Ratnapura

* * *


Mūṇa-malē: Homagama, Colombo; Pathadumbara, Kandy

Ruk-male: Maharagama, Colombo. See Ruk-mal-piṭiya

Malē-goda: Beruwala, Kalutara

Akkara-malē: Beruwala, Kalutara

Rat-malē: Agalawatta, Kalutara; Harispattuwa, Kandy; Dickwella, Matara; Maho, Kurunegala; Wariyapola, Kurunegala; Panduwasnuwara West, Kurunegala: Hingurakgoda, Polonnaruwa

Goḍa-rat-malē: Ibbagamuwa, Kurunegala

Mūṇa-malē-gama: Maho, Kurunegala

Mūṇa-malē: Bamunukotuwa, Kurunegala

Kanadarā-Ratmalē: Kahatagasdigiliya, Anuradhapura. Two villages put together

Rat-malē: Horowpothana, Anuradhapura

Piṭa-rat-malē: Haputale, Badulla

Ẹti-malē: Siyambalanduwa, Moneragala

Gilī-malē: Ratnapura, Ratnapura

* * *


Ela-mala-vala: Seethawaka, Colombo

Mala-gala: Padukka, Colombo

Ram-mala: Walasmulla, Hambantota. Raň+mala, Ran+mala

Ram-mala-kańdura: Hanguranketha, Nuwara Eliya. Kańdura: hill stream

Kōm-mala: Bentota, Galle. Kōn+mala

Dām-mala: Thawalama, Galle

Kuṁbala-mala-hēna: Baddegama, Galle

Mala-vẹnna: Hikkaduwa, Galle

Uḍu-mala-gala: Yakkalamulla, Galle

Yaṭa-mala-gala: Yakkalamulla, Galle

Rat-mala-kẹṭiya: Yakkalamulla, Galle

Mala-pola-gama: Uva Paranagama, Badulla

Mala-viṭa: Kegalle, Kegalle

* * *


Māl-bē: Rideegama, Kurunegala. Bē: part

* * *


Māla-bē: Kaduwela, Colombo

Māla-palla: Maharagama, Colombo

Māla-deṇiya: Mirigama, Gampaha

Māla-mulla: Panadura, Kalutara

Māla-gammana: Harispattuwa, Kandy

Māla-vala: Bentota, Galle

Māla-gamuva: Ganewatta, Kurunegala

Dunu-māla: Ruwanwella, Kegalle

* * *

Māla (suffix):

Nẹdi-māla: Dehiwala, Colombo

* * *


Mālē-van-goḍa: Beruwala, Kalutara

Kaṇu-malē: Weerambugedera, Kurunegala

* * *


Malā-mura: Nagoda, Galle

* * *

Malāna: (Mala+āna)

Rat-malāna: Ratmalana, Colombo

* * *

Mala: (flower)

Rat-mala-viṭa: Gampaha, Gampaha

* * *


Kanda-malāva: Gomarankadawala, Trincomalee

* * *


Ham-malava: Kuliyapitiya West, Kurunegala

Malava: Kekirawa, Anuradhapura

* * *

Mālaṁbē: (Māla+bē?)

Mālaṁbē-hēna: Walallavita, Kalutara

* * *


Rat-mallệva: Kekirawa, Anuradhapura.

* * *

Malan, Malaň:

Malan-vatta: Hanguranketha, Nuwara Eliya

Malan-deṇiya: Mawathagama, Kurunegala

Malaň-gama: Ratnapura, Ratnapura

* * *


Malal-goḍa-piṭiya: Imaduwa, Galle

Malal-pola: Yatiyanthota, Kegalle

* * *

Malala: (Mala+la)

Palle-malala: Hambantota, Hambantota

* * *


Rat-malla: Panduwasnuwara East, Kurunegala

Aṁba-malla: Bulathkohupitiya, Kegalle

* * *


Mali-duva: Hikkaduwa, Galle; Akuressa, Matara. Mali: flower; a tree or any flowering tree as in Mali-gas-pē, Galle Four Gravets

Malitta: Hali-Ela, Badulla

Itta-de-maliya: ? Weeraketiya, Hambantota

* * *


Māli-boḍa: Deraniyagala, Kegalle

* * *

Mal, Malar, Malla: (Tamil)

Mallāvi: Thunukkay, Mullaiththeevu

Pū-malarntāṉ: Madu, Mannar

Mallākam: Valikamam North, Jaffna

* * *


Mūṇa-malē: Homagama, Colombo; Pathadumbara, Kandy; Bamunukutuwa, Kurunegala

Mūṇa-mal-pẹlẹssa: Udadumbara, Kandy

Mūṇa-malē-gama: Maho, Kurunegala

Mūṇa-mal-deṇiya: Panduwasnuwara East, Kurunegala

Mūṇa-mal-gas-vẹva: Karuwalagaswewa, Puttalam

* * *

Makuḷu, Makul, Makulē, Makula, Mākila, Magul:

Makuḷu-dūva: Kesbewa, Colombo

Makul-deṇiya: Medadumbara, Kandy

Makuḷu-gas-vẹva: Galewela, Matale

Makul-gaha-ruppa: Matale, Matale

Makulē-maḍa: Ukuwela, Matale

Makuḷuva: Galle Four Gravets, Galle

Makula-deṇiya: Angunkolapelessa, Hambantota

Makulệva: Ehetuwewa, Kurunegala; Thambuttegama, Anuradhapura

Makul-pota: Polpithigama, Kurunegala

Makul-maḍē: Ganewatta, Kurunegala

Makul-vẹva: Ganewatta, Kurunegala

Makul-ẹlla: Bandarawela, Badulla

Makulla: Madulla, Moneragala

Mākilň-gamuva: Gampaha, Gampaha

Magulā-gama: Wariyapola, Kurunegala; Panduwasnuwara East, Kurunegala

Magul-damana: Dimbulagala, Polonnaruwa

* * *

Makiḻ: (Tamil)

Makiḻaṅ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Pattiṉiyār-makiḻaṅ-kuḻam: near Tāṇṭik-kuḷam, Vavuniya (One Inch Sheet)

Makiḻa-vaṭṭuvāṉ: Manmunai West, Batticaloa

Makiḻaṭit-tīvu: Manmunai Southwest, Batticaloa

Makiḻūr: Manmunai South, Batticaloa

* * *

Mimusops elengi
Makizh/Makizham/Ilagnchi: flowers (Mimusops elengi).
Mimusops elengi
Makizh/Makizham/Ilagnchi: fruit (Mimusops elengi).
Mimusops elengi
Makizh/Makizham/Ilagnchi: foliage (Mimusops elengi). [Courtesy:]
Mimusops elengi
Makizh/Makizham/Ilagnchi: tree (Mimusops elengi).

* * *

Revised: Saturday, 18 March 2017, 23:37

First published: Wednesday, 01 September 2010, 23:08

Previous columns:


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Ananthi blames war criminal Silva for blocking collective memorial at Mu'l'livaaykkaal
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